Robust Color Image Watermarking UsingNonsubsampled Contourlet Transform
C.Venkata Narasimhulu K.Satya Prasad
Professor, Dept of ECE Professor, Dept of ECE,HIET, Hyderabad, India JNTU Kakinada, Indianarasimhulucv@gmail.com firstname.lastname@example.org,
In this paper, we propose a novel hybrid spreadspectrum watermarking scheme for authentication of color images using nonsubsampled contourlet transformand singular value decomposition. The host color imageand color watermark images are decomposed intodirectional sub- bands using Nonsubsampled contourlettransform and then applied Singular value decompositionto mid frequency sub-band coefficients. The singularvalues of mid frequency sub-band coefficients of colorwatermark image are embedded into singular values of mid frequency sub-band coefficients of host color image inRed, Green and Blue color spaces simultaneously based onspread spectrum technique. The experimental resultsshows that the proposed hybrid watermarking scheme isrobust against common image processing operations suchas, JPEG, JPEG 2000 compression, cropping, Rotation,histogram equalization, low pass filtering ,medianfiltering, sharpening, shearing ,salt & Pepper noise,Gaussian noise, grayscale conversion etc. It has also beenshown the variation of visual quality of watermarkedimage for different scaling factors. The comparativeanalysis reveals that the proposed watermarking schemeout performs the color image watermarking schemesreported recently.
Keywords: Color image watermarking, Nonsubsampled Contourlet Transform, Singular value decomposition, Peaksignal to noise ratio, normalized Correlation coefficient.
1. INTRODUCTION:In recent years, multimedia products were rapidlydistributed over the fast communication systems suchas Internet, so there exist strong requirement to protectthe ownership and authentication of the multimediadata. Digital watermarking is a method of securing thedigital data by embedding additional information calledwater mark into the digital multimedia content. Thisembedding information can be later extracted from or detected in the multimedia to make an assertion aboutthe data authenticity. Digital watermarks remain intactunder transmission/transformation, allowing us toprotect our ownership rights in digital form. Absence of watermark in a previously watermarked image wouldlead to the conclusion that the data content has beenmodified. A watermarking algorithm consists of watermark structure, an embedding algorithm andextraction or detection algorithm. In multimediaapplications, embedded watermark should be invisible,robust and have a high capacity. Invisibility refers todegree of distortion introduced by the watermark and itsaffect on the viewers and listeners. Robustness is theresistance of an embedded watermark againstintentional attack and normal signal processingoperations such as noise, filtering, rotation, scaling,cropping and lossey compression etc. Capacity is theamount of data can be represented by embeddedwatermark.Watermarking techniques may be classified indifferent ways. The classification may be based on thetype of watermark being used, i.e., the watermark maybe a visually recognizable logo or sequence of randomnumbers. A second classification is based on whether the watermark is applied in the spatial domain or thetransform domain. In spatial domain, the simplestmethod is based on embedding the watermark in theleast significant bits (LSB) of image pixels. However,spatial domain techniques are not resistant enough toimage compression and other image processingoperations.Transform domain watermarking schemes such asthose based on the discrete cosine transform (DCT), thediscrete wavelet transform (DWT), contourlettransforms along with numerical transformations suchas Singular value Decomposition (SVD) and Principlecomponent analysis (PCA) typically provide higher image fidelity and are much robust to imagemanipulations.Of the so far proposed algorithms,wavelet domain algorithms perform better than other transform domain algorithms since DWT has a number of advantages over other transforms including timefrequency localization, multi resolution representation,superior HVS modeling, and linear complexity andadaptively and it has been proved that wavelets aregood at representing point wise discontinuities in onedimensional signal. However, in higher dimensions,e.g. image, there exists line or curve-shapeddiscontinuities. Since, 2D wavelets are produced bytensor products of 1D wavelets; they can only identifyhorizontal, vertical, diagonal discontinuities (edges) inimages, ignoring smoothness along contours andcurves. Curvelet transform was defined to represent two
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