(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 3, March 2011
this principle by using the acknowledgements to clock outgoing packets because an acknowledgement means that apacket was taken off the wire by the receiver. It also maintainsa congestion window CWND to reflect the network capacity. When congestion encounters it decrease over sending rateand reduced congestion window to one. However there arecertain issues, which need to be resolved to ensure thisequilibrium.
1. Determination of the available bandwidth.2) Ensuring that equilibrium is maintained.3) How to react to congestionThe Tahoe TCP implementation added a number of newalgorithms and refinements to earlier implementations. Thenew algorithms include Slow-Start, Congestion Avoidanceand Fast Retransmit . The refinements include amodification to the round-trip time estimator used to setretransmission timeout values  . It isn’t very suitable forhigh band-width product links because of the waiting timeout.The problem with Tahoe is that it takes a completetimeout interval to detect a packet loss and in fact, in mostimplementations it takes even longer because of the coarsegrain timeout. Also since it doesn’t send immediate ACK’s, itsends cumulative acknowledgements, therefore it follows a‘go back n ‘approach. Thus every time a packet is lost it waitsfor a timeout and the pipeline is emptied. This offers a majorcost in high band-width delay product links.
TCP Reno  retains the basic principle of Tahoe, such asslow starts and the coarse grain re-transmit timer. However itadds some intelligence over it so that lost packets are detectedearlier and the pipeline is not emptied every time a packet islost. Reno requires that we receive immediateacknowledgement whenever a segment is received. The logicbehind this is that whenever we receive a duplicateacknowledgment, then his duplicate acknowledgment couldhave been received if the next segment in sequence expected,has been delayed in the network and the segments reachedthere out of order or else that the packet is lost. If we receive a number of duplicate acknowledgementsthen that means that sufficient time have passed and even if the segment had taken a longer path, it should have gotten tothe receiver by now. There is a very high probability that itwas lost. So Reno suggests an algorithm called
Whenever we receive3 duplicate ACK’s we take itas a sign that the segment was lost, so we re-transmit thesegment without waiting for timeout. The basic algorithm ispresented as under:
1) Each time we receive 3 duplicate ACK’s we take that tomean that the segment was lost and we re-transmit thesegment immediately and enter ‘Fast- Recovery’2) Sets ssthresh to half the current window size and also setCWND to the same value.3) For each duplicate ACK receive increase CWND by one. If the increase CWND is greater than the amount of data in thepath then transmit a new segment else wait.Reno performs very well over TCP when the packetlosses are small. But when we have multiple packet losses inone window then RENO doesn’t perform too well .The reasonis that it can only detect single packet losses. If there ismultiple packet drops then the first info about the packet losscomes when we receive the duplicate ACK’s. But theinformation about the second packet which was lost will comeonly after the ACK for the retransmitted first segment reachesthe sender after one RTT. Another problem is that if thewidow is very small when the loss occurs then we wouldnever receive enough duplicate acknowledgements for a fastretransmit and we would have to wait for a coarse grainedtimeout. .Reno's Fast Recovery algorithm is optimized for thecase when a single packet is dropped from a window of data.
TCP Lite is a service that provides a transport methodthat interrupts TCP in order to reduce the overhead involved insession management in which no data is transmitted orreceived. TCP Lite reduces or eliminates pure TCP protocoldata units used in the set up and ACK while maintaining order,integrity, reliability and security of traditional TCP. TCP liteuses big window and protection against wrapped sequencenumbers. Lite performs over TCP same as Reno. But whenwindow increases it have some problems to maintain them.III.
The evaluation of the TCP variants, qualnet 5.0 under thewindows platform is used as the simulation tool.
Initially thenumber of nodes is 50, Simulation time was taken 200 secondsand seed as 1.
Table 1 Network simulation Parameter
1 Area 1500x15002 Number of nodes 10, 20 ,30 ,40 503 Application FTP
4 Mobility Model RWP5 Pause Time 5,10, 15,20,25, 30Seconds6 Speed 5,10,15,20,25,30Seconds7 Routing Protocol DSR8 Node Placement Random9 Seed 110 TCP Variants TCP Reno, TCP Lite, TCP Tahoe11 Data Packet Constant, 512 bytespacket size12 Simulation Time 200 Seconds
All the scenarios have been designed in 1500m x 1500m area.Mobility model used is Random Way Point (RWP). In this
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