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Analysis on Robust Adaptive Beamformers

Analysis on Robust Adaptive Beamformers

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Published by ijcsis
MVDR (minimum variance distortionless response) beamformer is the optimal beamformer which utilizes the second order statistics of the actual data for obtaining the Covariance matrix from which the weight vector of the antenna array is determined. In adaptive beamfomer which utilizes MVDR beamformer along with SMI(sample matrix inversion), actual data is not available to calculate the covariance matrix. Instead, covariance matrix is estimated from the available data. It includes finding the Matrix inversion. It may result in bad conditioning. To avoid this, some amount of loading is introduced to the diagonal elements, which is called diagonal loading. Diagonal loading can be inserted by adding a scaled version of identity matrix. Diagonal loading imparts Robustness to the adaptive beamformer against signal mismatch due to low sample support and helps to achieve desired sidelobe level and SINR improvement. Various methods in diagonal loading are analyzed in this paper with different loading levels and a novel hybrid algorithm for MVDR-SMI beamformer with colored adaptive diagonal loading is also proposed. The performance of the proposed methods is compared with other methods such as Conventional, MVDR, MVDR-SMI, MVDR-SMI-Diagonal Loading, MVDR-SMI-Colored –DL, MVDR-SMI-Adaptive DL by conducting simulations experiment. The proposed method shows the improvement in directivity and SINR compared to other methods.
MVDR (minimum variance distortionless response) beamformer is the optimal beamformer which utilizes the second order statistics of the actual data for obtaining the Covariance matrix from which the weight vector of the antenna array is determined. In adaptive beamfomer which utilizes MVDR beamformer along with SMI(sample matrix inversion), actual data is not available to calculate the covariance matrix. Instead, covariance matrix is estimated from the available data. It includes finding the Matrix inversion. It may result in bad conditioning. To avoid this, some amount of loading is introduced to the diagonal elements, which is called diagonal loading. Diagonal loading can be inserted by adding a scaled version of identity matrix. Diagonal loading imparts Robustness to the adaptive beamformer against signal mismatch due to low sample support and helps to achieve desired sidelobe level and SINR improvement. Various methods in diagonal loading are analyzed in this paper with different loading levels and a novel hybrid algorithm for MVDR-SMI beamformer with colored adaptive diagonal loading is also proposed. The performance of the proposed methods is compared with other methods such as Conventional, MVDR, MVDR-SMI, MVDR-SMI-Diagonal Loading, MVDR-SMI-Colored –DL, MVDR-SMI-Adaptive DL by conducting simulations experiment. The proposed method shows the improvement in directivity and SINR compared to other methods.

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12/14/2012

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Analysis on Robust Adaptive Beamformers
T.S.JEYALI LASEETHA
1
, DR.(MRS) R.SUKANESH
2
 
1. Professor
Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering,Anna University of TechnologyTirunelveli, Tamil NaduINDIA
email id: laseetha@gmail.com2. Professor
Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering,Madurai,Tamil NaduINDIA
Abstract:
MVDR (minimum variance distortionless response) beamformer is the optimal beamformer whichutilizes the second order statistics of the actual data for obtaining the Covariance matrix from which the weightvector of the antenna array is determined. In adaptive beamfomer which utilizes MVDR beamformer alongwith SMI(sample matrix inversion), actual data is not available to calculate the covariance matrix. Instead,covariance matrix is estimated from the available data. It includes finding the Matrix inversion. It may result inbad conditioning. To avoid this, some amount of loading is introduced to the diagonal elements, which is calleddiagonal loading. Diagonal loading can be inserted by adding a scaled version of identity matrix. Diagonalloading imparts Robustness to the adaptive beamformer against signal mismatch due to low sample support andhelps to achieve desired sidelobe level and SINR improvement
.
Various methods in diagonal loading areanalyzed in this paper with different loading levels and a novel hybrid algorithm for MVDR-SMI beamformer with colored adaptive diagonal loading is also proposed. The performance of the proposed methods iscompared with other methods such as Conventional, MVDR, MVDR-SMI, MVDR-SMI-Diagonal Loading,MVDR-SMI-Colored –DL, MVDR-SMI-Adaptive DL by conducting simulations experiment.
 
The proposedmethod shows the improvement in directivity and SINR compared to other methods.
Key-words
:
Smart antennas, Adaptive beamforming, Uniform Linear Array, Minimum Variance DistortionlessResponse Beamformer (MVDR), Sample-Matrix Inversion(SMI), Adaptive colored diagonal loading
1.Introduction
In Wireless Communications, smart technologiesare not only being applied at the antenna level, butalso at the receiver for direction of arrivalestimation, detection, diversity combining andequalization and at baseband processing softwarelevels. The ultimate benefit of these techniques is toincrease cellular capacity and range. Adaptivebeamforming reveals to be a complementary meansfor signal-to-interference-plus-noise-ratio (SINR)optimization [6,7,10]. In this paper, at antenna arrayelements level, the formation of a lobe structure,that results from the dynamic variation of anelement-space processing weight vector as opposedto a switched-beam or beam-space antennas, iscontrolled by an adaptive algorithm, which is theMVDR-Sample Matrix Inversion algorithm[2,7,10].It minimizes cost function reduction of a link’sSINR by ideally directing beams toward the signal-of-interest (SOI) and nulls in the directions of interference. Many algorithms differ largely incomplexity, correlation matrix, eigen value spreaddependence, inherent gradient noise, limited
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 3, March 2011171 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
dynamic range and limited number of samples used[1], [2].In optimum beamformers optimality can beachieved in theory if perfect knowledge of thesecond order statistics of the interference isavailable. It involves calculation of interference plusnoise correlation matrix


. For real worldscenarios, the adaptive methods are followed toobtain optimality. In adaptive beamformer, thecorrelation matrix is estimated from the collecteddata. In sample matrix Inversion technique a block of data is used to estimate the adaptive beamformingweight vector. The estimate

is not really asubstitute for true correlation matrix


. Hencethere is loss in performance. The SINR which is ameasure of performance of the beamformer degrades as the sample support (the number of data)is low. The lower band on sidelobe levels of thebeamformer when no interference sources werefound at an angle is also to be calculated. Trainingissues like the presence of desired signal in thecorrelation matrix

is also dealt with. Thedesired signal in the training set results in thecancellation and subsequent lose in performance.The paper is organized as follows. In Section 2,Problem formulation and general model ispresented. In Section 3 Adaptive beamforming withvarious beamforming methods are presented alongwith the Novel Hybrid algorithm -Adaptive coloreddiagonal loading. In Section 4 simulationexperiments are presented. Section 5 containsResults and discussions. Section 6 presents theconclusions.
2. Problem Formulation And GeneralModel
An uniform linear array (ULA) of M elements or sensors is considered. Let a desired signal S
0
from apoint source from a known direction θ
0
withsteering vector ‘a
0
and L number of J(jammer or)interference signals from unknowndirections
{
#

$

%

, specified by thesteering vectors
{I
#
I
$
I
%
I
respectivelyimpinge on the array. The white or sensor or thermalnoise is considered as ‘n’.A single carrier modulated signal
"

is given by
"
 
"
J
. It is arriving from anangle θ
0
and is received by the i
th
sensor. The signalS
0
(t) is a baseband signal having a deterministicamplitude and random uniformly distributed phaseand F
c
is the carrier frequency. The symbol isused to indicate that the signal is a pass band signal.X
1
(k) is the single observation or measurement of this signal made at time instant k, at sensor 1, whichis given as
#
"
"
-{I
#
I
$
I
{H
#
H
$
H

-
 
(1)
 
"

"
-I
H
(#
-
(2)Hence the single observation or measurementmade at the array of elements at the time instant k,called array snapshot is given as a vector 
{
#

$

%

(3)The general model of the steering vector[13] isgiven as

#


–È

È
 

(4)Also it is assumed that the desired signal,interference signals and noise are mutuallyuncorrelated.
3. Adaptive Beamforming
 In optimum beamformer, a priori knowledge of truestatistics of the array data is used to determine thecorrelation matrix which in turn is used to derive thebeamformer weight vector. Adaptive Beamformingis a technique in which an array of antennas isexploited to achieve maximum reception in aspecified direction by estimating the signal arrivalfrom a desired direction while signals of the samefrequency from other directions are rejected. This isachieved by varying the weights of each of thesensors used in the array. Though the signalsemanating from different transmitters occupy thesame frequency channel, they still arrive fromdifferent directions. This spatial separation isexploited to separate the desired signal from theinterfering signals. In adaptive beamforming theoptimum weights are iteratively computed usingcomplex algorithms based upon different criteria.For an adaptive beamformer, covariance or correlation matrix must be estimated from unknown
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 3, March 2011172 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
statistics of the array snapshots to get the optimumarray weights. The optimality criterion is tomaximize the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratioto increase the visibility of the desired signal at thearray output. The determination of the presence of signals of interest is known as detection while theinference of their parameters likes, the angle of arrival θ
0
, is referred to as estimation. In this paper itis assumed that the angle of arrival of the desiredsignal is known
3.1
 
Estimation Of Correlation Matrix
 The correlation matrix can be estimated[6,7,8,9]using different methods which would result indifferent performance and behavior of the algorithm.In block adaptive Sample Matrix Inversiontechnique, a block of snapshots are used to estimatethe ensemble average of 

 
and is written as[8]

#
(#

(5)=

$
"
"
-
-
(6)where N is the number of snapshots used and k isthe time index,
$
is the power of the desired signaland
and
are the jammer and noise correlationmatrices, respectively. The interference-plus-noisecorrelation matrix is the sum of these two matrices


-
(7)Where
$
, and
$

is the thermal noisepower, I is the identity matrix. It is assumed thatthermal noise is spatially uncorrelated.
3.2 MVDR Beamformer
 The MVDR beamformer whose pattern is shown inFig(2) is an adaptive high resolution beamformer that minimizes the output power while maintainingunity response in the desired direction.Mathematically a weight vector ‘w’ is to becalculated with the constrained optimization of problem
c


IJc
"

(8)Now the optimal weight vector may be written as

#
È

#

(9)This beamforming method experiences thefollowing drawbacks1)
 
the computational complexity is more in theorder of 
$
J
%
.2)
 
In the case of large array, low samplesupport i.e(M>>k),
may result insingular matrix or ill-conditioned.
Fig 1 conventional beamforming showing thebeampatternFig 2 MVDR-the optimum beamformer-beampattern
-80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80-100-90-80-70-60-50-40-30-20-100angle in
θ
beam response in dB
conventional beamforming
-80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80-100-90-80-70-60-50-40-30-20-100angle in
θ
beam response in dB
Mvdr beamforming
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 3, March 2011173 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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