Welcome to Scribd. Sign in or start your free trial to enjoy unlimited e-books, audiobooks & documents.Find out more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
7Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
An Improved Visual Cryptography Scheme for Secret Hiding

An Improved Visual Cryptography Scheme for Secret Hiding

Ratings: (0)|Views: 775|Likes:
Published by ijcsis
Cryptography is the practice and study of hiding information. Cryptography, then, not only protects data from theft or alteration, but can also be used for user authentication. There are, in general, three types of cryptographic schemes typically used to accomplish these goals: secret key (or symmetric) cryptography, public-key (or asymmetric) cryptography, and hash functions. In all cases, the initial unencrypted data is referred to as plaintext. It is encrypted into ciphertext, which will in turn (usually) be decrypted into usable plaintext. Visual Cryptography is a type of cryptography which encodes a number of images in the way that when the images on transparencies are stacked together, the hidden message appears without a trace of original images. The decryption is done directly by the human visual system with no special cryptographic calculations. This project presents a system which takes three pictures as an input and generates two images which correspond to two of the three input pictures. The third picture is reconstructed by printing the two output images onto transparencies and stacking them together. While the previous researches basically handle only binary images, this project establishes the extended visual cryptography scheme suitable for natural images. Generally, visual cryptography suffers from the deterioration of the image quality. This project also describes the method to improve the quality of the output images. The trade-off between the image quality and the security are discussed and assessed by observing the actual results of this method. Furthermore, the optimization of the image quality is discussed.
Cryptography is the practice and study of hiding information. Cryptography, then, not only protects data from theft or alteration, but can also be used for user authentication. There are, in general, three types of cryptographic schemes typically used to accomplish these goals: secret key (or symmetric) cryptography, public-key (or asymmetric) cryptography, and hash functions. In all cases, the initial unencrypted data is referred to as plaintext. It is encrypted into ciphertext, which will in turn (usually) be decrypted into usable plaintext. Visual Cryptography is a type of cryptography which encodes a number of images in the way that when the images on transparencies are stacked together, the hidden message appears without a trace of original images. The decryption is done directly by the human visual system with no special cryptographic calculations. This project presents a system which takes three pictures as an input and generates two images which correspond to two of the three input pictures. The third picture is reconstructed by printing the two output images onto transparencies and stacking them together. While the previous researches basically handle only binary images, this project establishes the extended visual cryptography scheme suitable for natural images. Generally, visual cryptography suffers from the deterioration of the image quality. This project also describes the method to improve the quality of the output images. The trade-off between the image quality and the security are discussed and assessed by observing the actual results of this method. Furthermore, the optimization of the image quality is discussed.

More info:

Published by: ijcsis on Apr 10, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

04/16/2013

pdf

text

original

 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 3, March 2011
AN IMPROVED VISUAL CRYPTOGRAPHY SCHEMEFOR SECRET HIDING
 
G.Prasanna LakshmiComputer Science,IBSARKarjat,IndiaPrasanalaxmi@yahoo.com Dr. D.A.ChandulalProfessor and HOD, IBSARComputer ScienceIndiadr.chandulal@yahoo.com Dr.KTV Reddy
 )
 Professor & PrincipalElectronics & Telecommunications Dept.Computer ScienceIndiaktvreddy@rediffmail.com 
 Abstrac
Cryptography
is the practice and studyof hiding information. Cryptography, then, not only protectsdata from theft or alteration, but can also be used for userauthentication. There are, in general, three types of cryptographic schemes typically used to accomplish thesegoals: secret key (or symmetric) cryptography, public-key (orasymmetric) cryptography, and hash functions. In all cases,the initial unencrypted data is referred to as
 plaintext 
. It isencrypted into
ciphertext 
, which will in turn (usually) bedecrypted into usable plaintext.Visual Cryptography is a type of cryptography whichencodes a number of images in the way that when the imageson transparencies are stacked together, the hidden messageappears without a trace of original images. The decryption isdone directly by the human visual system with no specialcryptographic calculations. This project presents a systemwhich takes three pictures as an input and generates twoimages which correspond to two of the three input pictures.The third picture is reconstructed by printing the two outputimages onto transparencies and stacking them together.While the previous researches basically handle onlybinary images, this project establishes the extended visualcryptography scheme suitable for natural images. Generally,visual cryptography suffers from the deterioration of the imagequality. This project also describes the method to improve thequality of the output images. The trade-off between the imagequality and the security are discussed and assessed byobserving the actual results of this method. Furthermore, theoptimization of the image quality is discussed.
 
Keywords-
Visual Cryptography, Digital Image, Mat lab
 
INTRODUCTIONImage:
 A digital
image is a computer file thatcontains graphical information instead of text or a program.Pixels are the basic building blocks of all digital images.Pixels are small adjoining squares in a matrix across the lengthand width of your digital image. They are so small that youdon’t see the actual pixels when the image is on yourcomputer monitor.Pixels are monochromatic. Each pixel is a single solidcolor that is blended from some combination of the 3 primarycolors of Red, Green, and Blue. So, every pixel has a REDcomponent, a GREEN component and BLUE component. Thephysical dimensions of a digital image are measured in pixelsand commonly called pixel or image resolution. Pixels arescalable to different physical sizes on your computer monitoror on a photo print. However, all of the pixels in any particulardigital image are the same size. Pixels as represented in aprinted photo become round slightly overlapping dots.
185http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 3, March 2011
Pixel Values:
As shown in this bitonal image, eachpixel is assigned a tonal value, in this example 0 for black and1 for white.
PIXEL DIMENSIONS
are the horizontal andvertical measurements of an image expressed in pixels. Thepixel dimensions may be determined by multiplying both thewidth and the height by the dpi. A digital camera will alsohave pixel dimensions, expressed as the number of pixelshorizontally and vertically that define its resolution (e.g.,2,048 by 3,072). Calculate the dpi achieved by dividing adocument's dimension into the corresponding pixel dimensionagainst which it is aligned.Example:
Fig:
An 8" x 10" document thatis scanned at 300 dpi has the pixel dimensions of 2,400 pixels(8" x 300 dpi) by 3,000 pixels (10" x 300 dpi).
 
Images in MATLAB:
The basic data structure in MATLAB is the
array
, anordered set of real or complex elements. This object isnaturally suited to the representation of 
images
, real-valuedordered sets of color or intensity data.MATLAB stores most images as two-dimensionalarrays (i.e., matrices), in which each element of the matrixcorresponds to a single
 pixel 
in the displayed image. (Pixel isderived from
 picture element 
and usually denotes a single doton a computer display.)For example, an image composed of 200 rows and300 columns of different colored dots would be stored inMATLAB as a 200-by-300 matrix. Some images, such ascolor images, require a three-dimensional array, where the firstplane in the third dimension represents the red pixelintensities, the second plane represents the green pixelintensities, and the third plane represents the blue pixelintensities. This convention makes working with images inMATLAB similar to working with any other type of matrixdata, and makes the full power of MATLAB available forimage processing applications.
IMAGE REPRESENTATION
 An image is stored as a matrix using standard Mat lab matrixconventions. There are four basic types of images supportedby Mat lab:1.
 
Binary images2.
 
Intensity images3.
 
RGB images
4.
 
Indexed images
Binary Images:
In a binary image, each pixel assumes one of only two discretevalues: 1 or 0. A binary image is stored as a logical array. Byconvention, this documentation uses the variable name BW torefer to binary images.The following figure shows a binary image with a close-upview of some of the pixel values.
186http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 3, March 2011
Fig: Pixel Values in a Binary Image
Grayscale Images:
A grayscale image (also called gray-scale, gray scale,or gray-level) is a data matrix whose values representintensities within some range. MATLAB stores a grayscaleimage as an individual matrix, with each element of the matrixcorresponding to one image pixel. By convention, thisdocumentation uses the variable name I to refer to grayscaleimages.The matrix can be of class uint8, uint16, int16, single,or double. While grayscale images are rarely saved with acolor map, MATLAB uses a color map to display them.For a matrix of class single or double, using thedefault grayscale color map, the intensity 0 represents black and the intensity 1 represents white. For a matrix of type uint8,uint16, or int16, the intensity intmin (class (I)) representsblack and the intensity intmax (class (I)) represents white.The figure below depicts a grayscale image of class double.
Fig: Pixel Values in a Grayscale Image Define Gray Levels
 
1)
 
Color Images:
A color image is an image in which each pixel isspecified by three values — one each for the red, blue, andgreen components of the pixel's color. MATLAB store colorimages as an
m
-by-
n
-by-3 data array that defines red, green,and blue color components for each individual pixel. Colorimages do not use a color map. The color of each pixel isdetermined by the combination of the red, green, and blueintensities stored in each color plane at the pixel's location.Graphics file formats store color images as 24-bitimages, where the red, green, and blue components are 8 bitseach. This yields a potential of 16 million colors. Theprecision with which a real-life image can be replicated hasled to the commonly used term color image.A color array can be of class
uint8
,
uint16
,
single
, or
double
. In a color array of class
single
or
double
, each color component is a value between 0 and 1. Apixel whose color components are (0, 0, 0) is displayed asblack, and a pixel whose color components are (1, 1, 1) isdisplayed as white. The three color components for each pixelare stored along the third dimension of the data array. For
 example, the red, green, and blue color componentsof the pixel (10,5) are stored in
RGB(10,5,1)
,
RGB(10,5,2)
, and
RGB(10,5,3)
,respectively.
187http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

Activity (7)

You've already reviewed this. Edit your review.
1 thousand reads
1 hundred reads
akumar5189 liked this
akumar5189 liked this
mani2350 liked this
abhisarkkd liked this

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->