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Modeling of Aluminium – Flyash Particulate Metal Matrix Composites using Fuzzy Logic

Modeling of Aluminium – Flyash Particulate Metal Matrix Composites using Fuzzy Logic

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Published by ijcsis
This paper models the tension and bend test data using fuzzy logic and radial basis function (RBF) artificial neural network. The data have been collected experimentally working on Aluminium–flyash metal matrix composite. The fuzzy logic estimates change in height in tension test and change in buldge diameter in bend test better when compared to RBF.
This paper models the tension and bend test data using fuzzy logic and radial basis function (RBF) artificial neural network. The data have been collected experimentally working on Aluminium–flyash metal matrix composite. The fuzzy logic estimates change in height in tension test and change in buldge diameter in bend test better when compared to RBF.

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Published by: ijcsis on Apr 10, 2011
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Modeling of Aluminium – Flyash ParticulateMetal Matrix Composites using Fuzzy Logic
1
R.Elangovan and
2
Dr.S.Purushothaman
1
R.Elangovan, Research Scholar,
 
Department of Production Engineering,Vinayaka Missions University, Salem, India-636 308
2
Dr.S.Purushothaman, Principal
,
Sun College of Engineering and Technology,Sun Nagar, Erachakulum, Kanyakumari District –629902, IndiaEmail:dr.s.purushothaman@gmail.com
 
Abstract
--This paper models the tension and bend testdata using fuzzy logic and radial basis function (RBF)artificial neural network. The data have been collectedexperimentally working on Aluminium–flyash metalmatrix composite. The fuzzy logic estimates change inheight in tension test and change in buldge diameter inbend test better when compared to RBF
.
Keywords: Radial basis function, fuzzy logic, tension test,bend test, scanning electron microscopy
I.
 
INTRODUCTIONComposite materials are engineered materialsmade from two or more constituent materials withsignificantly different physical or chemical propertiesand which remain separate and distinct on amacroscopic level within the finished structure. MetalMatrix Composite (MMC) consists of a metallicmatrix combined with a reinforcing material. Thematrix materials are Aluminium, Magnesium,Titanium[1-3]. The reinforcing materials can beflyash, Silicon Carbide, Graphite, and AluminaAl-flyash composite has low density. Thiscomposite has potential applications in covers,shrouds, casings, manifolds, valve covers, gardenfurniture, and engine blocks in the automotive, smallengine and electro mechanical industry sectors.Flyash can be classified into two categories,precipitator and cenosphere. Precipitator flyash is asolid and has a density of about 2- 2.5 gm /cm
3
.Cenosphere flyash is hollow and has a lower densityof about 0.6 gm/cm
3.
Flyash have been used as thereinforcing particulates in aluminium matrix [4-6]. Flyashhas received attention as reinforcing phase as it is found toincrease the hardness, tensile strength and wear resistance of aluminium metal matrix composites.Particulates are the most common and cheapestreinforcement materials. These produces the isotropicproperty of MMC's which shows promising application instructural fields The Al - flyash - silicon carbide hybridmatrix composites have a good potential for use as wearresistant materials. Flyash particulate improves propertiessuch as hardness, wear resistance and compressive strength.If the composite is to be used in a structural application, themodulus, strength and density of the composite will beimportant which requires high modulus, low density
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 3, March 2011220 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
reinforcement like flyash. If the composite is to be used inwear resistant applications, hardness is important.II MATERIALS AND METHODS
A.
 
Materials
A hollow pipe is taken first with a dimension of 500 mm long 70mm radius and 8 mm thickness.Some quantity of water is added to the foundry sandto increase the adhesives and collapsibility of thesand. After that, a hollow pipe of 40 mm diameterand 500mm long is inserted vertically into thestanding bigger hollow pipe. The gap between thepipes is filled with the prepared foundry sand. It isrammed well so as to form the shape of the pattern.Then it is kept under the sunlight so that it will setwell. After that, the pattern is removed and the cavityis formed on the mould.The pure aluminium ingots arc cut into smallpieces. The coal is heated in the furnace. After thesufficient heat is applied blower is switched on.Crucible is placed in the furnace. When sufficientamount of heat is obtained in the crucible, aluminiumpieces are put in. When the crucible reaches about600
o
C, the aluminium pieces melts into liquid. Slag isremoved. When the molten metal gets into a semisolid condition, flyash is added to it and is mixedwith stirrer. Then it is kept cooled so as to become asolid composite.In stir casting process, the aluminium is meltedat a controlled temperature and the desired quantityof flyash is added to the molten metal. The moltenmetal is stirred continuously to create a vortex toforce the slightly lighter particle into the melt.Continuous stirring is done to disperse the flyashparticulate as uniformly as possible in a short time.For stirring the flyash and molten metal, three bladepropeller type is used. The mixed matrix is thentransformed into a preheated transfer ladle. Thematerial is stirred again and again and poured into themoulds. It solidifies. The solid is cut into shapes, andthe surface is cleaned.
B
Methods
 
B.1 Fuzzy LogicFuzzy logic has rapidly become one of themost successful of today's technologies fordeveloping sophistication in technologies. Fuzzylogic addresses applications perfectly as it resembleshuman decision making with an ability to generateprecise solutions from certain or approximateinformation. It fills an important gap in engineeringdesign methods left vacant by purely mathematicalapproaches, and purely logic-based approaches insystem design. While other approaches requireaccurate equations to model real-world behaviors,fuzzy design can accommodate the ambiguities of real-world human language and logic. It providesboth an intuitive method for describing systems inhuman terms and automates the conversion of thosesystem specifications into effective models.B.2 Radial basis function (RBF)Radial basis function is a supervised neuralnetwork. The network has an input layer, hiddenlayer (RBF layer) and output layer. The featuresobtained are used as inputs for the network and thetarget values for training is based on the valueschange in height or change in buldge diameter.Training RBF is done as follows,1.
 
Distance between pattern and centers arefound.2.
 
An RBF matrix whose size will be (np Xcp). where ‘np’ is the number of patternsused for training and ‘cp’ is the number of centers which is equal to ‘np’.3.
 
Final weights are calculated.
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 3, March 2011221 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
4.
 
During testing the performance of the RBFnetwork, RBF values are formed from thefeatures obtained from inputs and processedwith the final weights obtained duringtraining. Based on the result obtained, thetest data is classified.III EXPERIMENTAL WORK AND RESULTSChemical composition of flvash(Data collected from Tuticorin thermal power plantTamil Nadu, India)Sio2 - 60.62 %,Al2O3 - 21.93%Fe2O3 + Fe304 -7.12%CaO - 2.28%MgO - 0.85 %So 4 - TracesLoss on ignition -0.72%Bulk Density - 0.86gm/ccFineness - 0.075mm inm2 / kgMelting point of aluminium is - 660° CCasting period -2 ½ hrsStirring period 20 minutes
A.
 
Tension test
A standard test piece is taken.. The gaugelength is maintained by gripping at either end bysuitable apparatus in a universal testingmachine(UTM). The UTM slowly exerts an axial pullso that the specimen is stretched until it breaks. Thetest provides information on proof stress, yield point,tensile strength, elongation and reduction in area(Table 1).
B.
 
Bend test
Testing will be done using a UTM.Capacity of UTM is 40 tonnes.Diameter of rod =24mmBending pan radius =16mmLength of the rod =265mmIV RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
A.
 
Estimating change in height during tensiontest
Figure 1 shows estimation of change in height byFuzzy logic for the tension test data. The estimationis accurate and concides with the original datacollected. Figure 2 shows estimation of change inheight by RBF for the tension test data. Theestimation slightly deviates and not close with theactual data.Figure 3 presents comparisons of the performance of RBF and fuzzy logic in estimating the change inheight. The performance of Fuzzy logic is superior toperformance of RBF. However, depending upon thetype of data used, the performance of RBF willimprove further.
B Estimating buldge diameter during bend test
Figure 4 shows estimation of change in buldgediameter during bend test by Fuzzy logic for thebend test data. The estimation is almost accurate andcoincides with the original data collected. Figure 5shows estimation of change buldge diamater by RBFfor the bend test data. The estimation slightlydeviates and not close with the actual dataFigure 6 presents comparisons of the performance of RBF and fuzzy logic in estimating the buldge
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 3, March 2011222 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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