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Caliornia Geology Magazine Sep-Oct 1992

Caliornia Geology Magazine Sep-Oct 1992

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SEPTESEAOCTOBER1992
 
e . . , A r M ~ O I l i o t
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EXPRESSEDIN
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ARE
SOlELYTHOSE
OFTHE
AVfK)AS
AND
ARE
NO'
N E ~
Y€NDORSEO
lilY
THE
OEPofoATMENT
OFCOttSERVATlON
.
''''
'35
.162.163
Contaminated
induslrial
sitesWastewater
land
reclamation
Preventiveaction
and
environmentalprotectionmeasures
Air
poliUlioncontrolWaterprotection
Soil
protection
landscape
andnatureprotection
Environmental
politics
and
Its
accep
lance
Global
and
interregionalconcepts
Regional
and
local
concepts
Public
relationsEnvironmental
legislation
Ern.ironmental
-""""'"
GEOTECHNICA
1993-INTERNATIONAL
GEOSCIENCESTRADEFAIR._•.............................._.....................CAPTAINJACK'S
STRONGHOlD
..MEDICINE
lAKE
VOLCANOANDLAVABEDSNATIONALMONUMENT.........................•........••.•.•..•.....••..._
145
ANNOUNCEMENTS
154
THEEARTHQUAKEENGINEERINGRESEARCHINSTITUTE(EERI)ANNUALMEETING1993
154
NINTHTHEMATICCONFERENCEONGEOLOGICREMOTESENSING
154
29THFORUMONTHEGEOLOGYOFINDUSTRIALMINERALS
155
TEACHERFEATURE
156
BOOKREVIEWS159STATEMENTOFOWNERSHIP,MANAGEMENT
AND
CIACULATION..PUBLICATIONSREOUESTFORM.CALIFORNIAGEOLOGYSUBSCRIPTIONANDCHANGEOFADDRESSFORM
164
CONFERENCEONLESSONSFROMTHELOMAPRIETAEARTHQUAKE
164
In
This
Issue
I
Formoreinformation.contact:
German
American
Chamber
of
Commerce.
Inc.
666
Frfth
Avenue
NewYOft(,
NY
10103FAX:(212)
974·8838
EnvironmenlClllyconscious
use
of
resources
Productionand
use
of
rawmaterialsPr<X!uction
and
supply
of
energy
Alternative
raw
materialsand
energies
Soil
andlandscapeWaterandwaters
Acquisition
of
infonnalion
Prospectionandexploration
Measuringlechnology
and
analytics
RemOle
sensing
and
photogram.
met",
Geoinformationsystems
(GIS)
Modeling
and
simulation
GEOTECHNlCA
1993
INTERNATIONAL
GEOSCIENCES
TRADE
FAIR
Cologne,Germany
The
Foreign
Commercial
Service
in
Germany.
the
U.S.
Department
of
C0m-
merce.and
the
Cologne
Fair
&
Exhibitions
Corporation
\AIiIl
present
the
International
TradeFair
and
Congress
for
Geosciences
and
T e c h ~ .
May
5-8.
1993.
Topics
will
milile,
EliSe
ManlSOl"l
lenIi
TabllioPeggy
Walkei'
JottT..-
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Orvisloo1
01
Mones
&
Geology
JAMES
F.
DAVIS
Stille
GeologIst
CALIFORNIA
GEOlOGY
T"fle;
RftourI:8
Agency
DOUGLAS
P
WHEELER
5Bcrelaf}'
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APUBLICATIONOF
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DEPARTNENTOFCONSERVATlONDIVISION
OF
MINESANDGEOLOGY
sw.oIc.wom..
PETE
WILSON
""""""
SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER1992Volume45/Number5CGEOA45
is)
133·164(1992)
Cover
Pl1oto:ValentineCave,alavatubein
lava
Beds
NationalMonument,SiskiyouCOUnly,California.
lava
benches
on
Il1e
wallsmarkthelevel
01
lavaIl1at
once
IlowedIhroughIhelube.
Photo
by
Bruce
W.
Rogers.
'"
CALIFQANIAGEOLOGY
SEPTEMBER.<QCTOBER1992
 
CAPTAIN
JACK'S
STRONGHOlD
The
Geologic
Events
that
Created
a
Natural
Fortress
SiskiyouCounty
CAPTAINJACK'S
.'11
HONCI/OLD
LAVABEOS
NATIONAL
MONUMENT
97
OREGON
- - - - - - - - ~ ~ - - ~ - - - - - -
CALlFORNtA
_ ~ 6 6
AARON
C.
WATERS
This
oft/ele.
on
abrIdged
!!emOIl
of
0
poper
In
US.
GeoI09lcal
Sun.eyClrwlar
838
(J
981.
p
151
16JJ./OCllsn
on
thegeologlc/oClors
of
two
bellIes
althe
Modoc
War.
Addltlonol
maneu
lien:
and
strategIeSore
dexrlbe(/
In
Ihe
orlglnol
publica/Ion.
..
edltor
After
seulcl'$orrfued
In
the
Modocs
home
land
rn
the
mld-
J800s.
the
ModOl;S
were
relocated
10
tile
Klamath
Indlon
Reserootlon
Anding
thIs
new
life
urweceploble.
they
gradlJ(/l/y
returned
to
l h e l r O ~ I f ( l l l o n d
In
late
1872
fighting
broke
out
when
the
u.s.
Army
ordered
them
10
return
10
the
rescmoolion
Under
the
leodershlp
of
K/enrpoos.
alsoknownasCaptain
Jack.
the
grosslyoutnumbered
Modocs
defended
them
se/lle!l
throughout
the
winter
WEEO
Figura
1
Locationmap
01
Captain
Jack's
Stronghold,
Lava
Beds
Na\Jonal
Monument.
[
first
describe
tile
terraIn
in
andneartheStronghokl.asseenthroughthe
eyes
ofageologist.ThenIreturntothe
Modoc
War
anddlscllss,
in
termsofterrain.theconsequences
01
the
first
andsecondassaults
by
theAnny
on
theStronghold.
followed
by
ananalysis
of
how
the
Modocs
were
able
to
with
draw
from
the
Strongholdundetected.
o
10
20
mile!
1_
---,-'-'
,.---,1
I[
o
to
20
kjlometers
5
from
thepursuing
AmlY
patrols.
In
fact
thisalmosttreelessexpanse
of
small
andloose
blocksoflava
wouJd
be
the
worst
place
for
the
Modocs
tohide,sotheyavoided
the
Schonchin
flow.
Somewritershave
assumed
thattheStronghokl
is
-withintheSchonchin
flow,"
but
theend
oftheSchonchin
flow
is
2.4
miles
(3.8
kml
southoftheStronghold.
The
source
of
the
flow
is
at
the
eastbase
of
SchonchinBulle,another4
miles(6.4
kml
farthersouth.
TIle
Schonchin
flow
playednopart
in
the
Modoc
War,
exceplthata
few
ofCaptainJack'sbandambushedabout
60
sokllersthere.
possibly
to
avoid
beingtrappedagainst
the
inhospitable
westedge:
of
the
now.
One
part
of
the
answer
is
thattheModocschoseasuperbnaluralfortress.
They
were
familiar
with
theterrainsouthoftheshorelineof
Tule
Lake
(F"tgures
Iand
2).
The
Army
wasignorantof
this
Iandscape's
military
advantages.Ouoniclersofthe
Modoc
War
havenotunderslood
the
natureof
the
terrain
in
which
the
Modocs
holedupanymore
than
did
the
U.S.
troopsandtheir
offICerS.
Onehistalianwrote
vaguely
aboutthe
Modocs
Mdisappearing
intotheSchonchin
l I o w , ~
as
if
thisbarrenpatchofrecerttlava
had
some
mythical
powerto
swallow
the
McxIocs
andhidethem
INTRODUCTION
O
ne
of
the
Iasl
NativeCalifomianuprisings,
the
ModocWar(November
29.1872
to
June
4.
18731.
has
been
chronicled
by
many
newspaper
writers.historians.
and
social
scientists
(Murray.
1958:
Thompson,
1971).
The
","lienrecord.however,
is
blurredandcontradictoryconcerningthecauses.motives.heroism.
and
savagery
of
principalparticipantsonbothsides
(RidcIIe.
1974).
Thisarticle
is
noattempt
Mto
settherecord
s t r a i g h t ~
with
reg.-1rd
to
whathas
been
reportedaboutthehistoricand
SOCiological
rootsof
the
Modoc.
War.
InsteadIinvestigatethequestionrepeatedlyasked;
How
dicl53
Modoc
men,
withtwice
asmany
VJOmen
and
chiklren,withstandasiegethroughout
the
dead
ofwinter.
rout
300
U.S.Annysoldiers
engaged
in
the
first
majorassault,
and
withdrawundetectedafterrepulsingasecondassault
by
650
mensupported
by
mortarsandhowitzers?
CALIFORNIA
GEOlOOV
SEPTEM8ER/OCTOBER
1992
",

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