What is soil?
Soil is formed in place or deposited by various forcesof nature—such as glaciers, wind, lakes and rivers—residually or organically. Following are importantelements in soil compaction:
Soil moisture content
Compaction effort required
There are five principle reasons to compact soil:
Increases load-bearing capacity
Prevents soil settlement and frost damage
Reduces water seepage, swelling and contraction
Reduces settling of soil
Types of compaction
There are four types of compaction effort on soil orasphalt:
Soil compaction is defined as the method of mechanically increasingthe density of soil. In construction, this is a significant part of the buildingprocess. If performed improperly, settlement of the soil could occurand result in unnecessarymaintenance costs orstructure failure. Almost alltypes of building sites andconstruction projects utilizemechanical compactiontechniques.
These different types of effort are found in the twoprinciple types of compaction force: static andvibratory.
is simply the deadweight of the machine,applying downward force on the soil surface, com-pressing the soil particles. The only way to changethe effective compaction force is by adding orsubtracting the weight of the machine. Static com-paction is confined to upper soil layers and is limitedto any appreciable depth. Kneading and pressure aretwo examples of static compaction.
uses a mechanism, usually engine-driven, to create a downward force in addition to themachine’s static weight. The vibrating mechanism isusually a rotating eccentric weight or piston/springcombination (in rammers). The compactors deliver arapid sequence of blows (impacts) to the surface,thereby affecting the top layers as well as deeperlayers. Vibration moves through the material, settingparticles in motion and moving them closer togetherfor the highest density possible. Based on thematerials being compacted, a certain amount of forcemust be used to overcome the cohesive nature of particular particles.
SOIL COMPACTION HANDBOOK
Loose Soil (poor load support)Compacted Soil (improved load support)