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Chemistry 11B

Chemistry 11B

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Published by Sanjeev Kumar
This book is meant for the students studying in schools which follows CBSE or similar curriculum. It can also be referred for General Studies paper of UPSC's Civil Services Exam. All rights are reserved by the publisher i.e. NCERT. The contents of the book has been downloaded from the site: http://www.ncert.nic.in/index.html.
This book is meant for the students studying in schools which follows CBSE or similar curriculum. It can also be referred for General Studies paper of UPSC's Civil Services Exam. All rights are reserved by the publisher i.e. NCERT. The contents of the book has been downloaded from the site: http://www.ncert.nic.in/index.html.

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Published by: Sanjeev Kumar on Apr 11, 2011
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7 ANSWERS
C
ONTENTS
F
OREWORD
ii
Unit 8Redox Reactions255
8.1Classical Idea of Redox Reactions-Oxidation and Reduction Reactions2558.2Redox Reactions in Terms of Electron Transfer Reactions2578.3Oxidation Number2598.4Redox Reactions and Electrode Processes269
Unit 9Hydrogen
276
9.1Position of Hydrogen in the Periodic Table2769.2Dihydrogen, H
2
2779.3Preparation of Dihydrogen, H
2
2789.4Properties of Dihydrogen2789.5Hydrides2809.6Water2819.7Hydrogen Peroxide (H
2
O
2
)2859.8Heavy Water, D
2
O2869.9Dihydrogen as a Fuel286
Unit 10The
-Block Elements291
10.1Group 1 Elements: Alkali Metals29210.2General Characteristics of the Compounds of the Alkali Metals29510.3Anomalous Properties of Lithium29610.4Some Important Compounds of Sodium29610.5Biological Importance of Sodium and Potassium29810.6Group 2 Elements : Alkaline Earth Metals29810.7General Characteristics of Compounds of the Alkaline Earth Metals30110.8Anomalous Behaviour of Beryllium30210.9Some Important Compounds of Calcium30210.10Biological Importance of Magnesium and Calcium304
Unit 11The
 p 
-Block Elements307
11.1Group 13 Elements: The Boron Family30911.2Important Trends and Anomalous Properties of Boron31211.3Some Important Compounds of Boron31211.4Uses of Boron and Aluminium and their Compounds314
 
8CHEMISTR
 
(viii)
11.5Group 14 Elements: The Carbon Family31411.6Important Trends and Anomalous Behaviour of Carbon31711.7Allotropes of Carbon31711.8Some Important Compounds of Carbon and Silicon319
Unit 12Organic Chemistry Some Basic Principles and Techniques326
12.1General Introduction32612.2Tetravalence of Carbon: Shapes of Organic Compounds32712.3Structural Representations of Organic Compounds32812.4Classification of Organic Compounds33112.5Nomenclature of Organic Compounds33212.6Isomerism34012.7Fundamental Concepts in Organic Reaction Mechanism34112.8Methods of Purification of Organic Compounds34812.9Qualitative Analysis of Organic Compounds35412.10 Quantitative Analysis355
Unit 13Hydrocarbons365
13.1Classification36513.2Alkanes36613.3Alkenes37613.4Alkynes38413.5Aromatic Hydrocarbon38813.6Carcinogenicity and Toxicity395
Unit 14Environmental Chemistry398
14.1Environmental Pollution39814.2Atmospheric Pollution39914.3Water Pollution40614.4Soil Pollution40814.5Industrial Waste40914.6Strategies to control Environmental Pollution41014.7Green Chemistry410
 Answers414Index418
 
255REDOX REACTIONS
Chemistry deals with varieties of matter and change of onekind of matter into the other. Transformation of matter fromone kind into another occurs through the various types of reactions. One important category of such reactions is
Redox Reactions
. A number of phenomena, both physicalas well as biological, are concerned with redox reactions. These reactions find extensive use in pharmaceutical, biological, industrial, metallurgical and agricultural areas. The importance of these reactions is apparent from the fact that burning of different types of fuels for obtaining energy for domestic, transport and other commercial purposes,electrochemical processes for extraction of highly reactivemetals and non-metals, manufacturing of chemicalcompounds like caustic soda, operation of dry and wet  batteries and corrosion of metals fall within the purview of redox processes. Of late, environmental issues like
Hydrogen Economy
(use of liquid hydrogen as fuel) anddevelopment of 
‘Ozone Hole’
have started figuring under redox phenomenon.
8.1CLASSICAL IDEA OF REDOX REACTIONS – OXIDATION AND REDUCTION REACTIONS
Originally, the term
oxidation
was used to describe theaddition of oxygen to an element or a compound. Becauseof the presence of dioxygen in the atmosphere (~20%),many elements combine with it and this is the principalreason why they commonly occur on the earth in theform of their oxides. The following reactions represent oxidation processes according to the limited definition of oxidation:2 Mg (s) + O
2
(g)
 
2 MgO (s)(8.1)S (s) + O
2
(g)
SO
2
(g)(8.2)
 After studying this unit you will beable to
identify redox reactions as a classof reactions in which oxidationand reduction reactions occur simultaneously;
define the terms oxidation,reduction, oxidant (oxidisingagent) and reductant (reducingagent);
explain mechanism of redox reactions by electron transfer process;
use the concept of oxidationnumber to identify oxidant andreductant in a reaction;
classify redox reaction intocombination (synthesis),decomposition, displacement and disproportionationreactions;
suggest a comparative order among various reductants andoxidants;
 balance chemical equationsusing (i) oxidation number (ii) half reaction method;
learn the concept of redox reactions in terms of electrodeprocesses.
UNIT 8
REDOX REACTIONS
 
Where there is oxidation, there is always reduction – Chemistry is essentially a study of redox systems.

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