Batch production is characterized by the manufacture of a limited number of product( but manysuch quantities of different products) produced at regular intervals and stocked in warehouses asfinished goods awaiting sales. Examples include: process industries such as pharmaceuticals,paints, chemicals, switch gears, heavy motor vehicles etc.Batch production require that the work for any task is divided into parts or operations. Eachoperation is completed through the whole batch before the next operation is performed. By usingthe batch production method, it is possible to achieve specialisation of labour. Capitalexpenditure can also be kept lower although careful planning is required to ensure thatproduction equipment is not idle. The main aims of the batch method are, therefore, to:- Concentrate skills (specialisation)-
chieve high equipment utilization3)
Mass as well as Flow production are characterized by the manufacture of a several number of standard product produced and stocked in the warehouses as finished goods awaiting sales. Thegoods under mass production are manufactured either at a single operation or a series of operations on one machine. Examples include: manufacture of plastic goods, sintered products,hardware etc. The goods under flow production are manufactured by a series of operations ondifferent machines, arranged as per sequence of operations. Examples include: manufacture andassembly shops of automobiles, refrigerators, radios, television sets etc.4 )
Process production is characterized by the manufacture of a single product produced and stockedin warehouses awaiting sales. The flexibility of such plants is almost zero as only one type of product can be produced in such plants. Highly sophisticated machinery is used here. Examplesinclude: Manufacture of sugar, cement, paper, coke etc.