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Table Of Contents

Defining the User Interface
The Importance of Good Design
The Benefits of Good Design
A Brief History of the Human-Computer Interface
Introduction of the Graphical User Interface
The Blossoming of the World Wide Web
A Brief History of Screen Design
The Purpose of This Book
What’s Next?
The Graphical User Interface
Characteristics of Graphical and Web User Interfaces
The Popularity of Graphics
The Concept of Direct Manipulation
Graphical Systems: Advantages and Disadvantages
Characteristics of the Graphical User Interface
The Web User Interface
The Popularity of the Web
Characteristics of a Web Interface
Characteristics of an Intranet versus the Internet
Extranets
Principles of User Interface Design
Principles for the Xerox STAR
General Principles
Obstacles and Pitfalls in the Development Path
Designing for People: The Five Commandments
Usability
Usability Assessment in the Design Process
Movement Control
Learning
Skill
Individual Differences
Human Considerations in Design
The User’s Knowledge and Experience
The User’s Tasks and Needs
The User’s Psychological Characteristics
The User’s Physical Characteristics
Human Interaction Speeds
Performance versus Preference
Methods for Gaining an Understanding of Users
Business Definition and Requirements Analysis
INDIRECT METHODS
Direct Methods
Indirect Methods
Requirements Collection Guidelines
Determining Basic Business Functions
Understanding the User’s Mental Model
Developing Conceptual Models
The User’s New Mental Model
Design Standards or Style Guides
Value of Standards and Guidelines
Document Design
Design Support and Implementation
System Training and Documentation Needs
Training
Documentation
Human Considerations in Screen Design
Understand the Principles of Good Screen Design
How to Distract the Screen User
What Screen Users Want
What Screen Users Do
Interface Design Goals
The Test for a Good Design
Screen Meaning and Purpose
Organizing Screen Elements Clearly and Meaningfully
Consistency
Ordering of Screen Data and Content
Upper-Left Starting Point
Screen Navigation and Flow
Visually Pleasing Composition
Amount of Information
Distinctiveness
Focus and Emphasis
Conveying Depth of Levels or a Three-Dimensional Appearance
Presenting Information Simply and Meaningfully
Organization and Structure Guidelines
Reading, Browsing, and Searching on the Web
Intranet Design Guidelines
Extranet Design Guidelines
Statistical Graphics
Types of Statistical Graphics
Examples of Screens
Develop System Menus and Navigation Schemes
Structures of Menus
Single Menus
Sequential Linear Menus
Simultaneous Menus
Hierarchical Menus
Connected Menus
Event-Trapping Menus
Functions of Menus
Navigation to a New Menu
Execute an Action or Procedure
Displaying Information
Data or Parameter Input
Content of Menus
Menu Context
Menu Title
Choice Descriptions
Completion Instructions
Formatting of Menus
Display
Presentation
Organization
Complexity
Item Arrangement
Ordering
Groupings
Phrasing the Menu
Menu Titles
Menu Choice Descriptions
Menu Instructions
Intent Indicators
Keyboard Equivalents
Keyboard Accelerators
Selecting Menu Choices
Initial Cursor Positioning
Choice Selection
Defaults
Unavailable Choices
Mark Toggles or Settings
Toggled Menu Items
Navigating Menus
Web Site Navigation Problems
Navigation Goals
Web Site Navigation
Components of a Web Navigation System
Maintaining a Sense of Place
Kinds of Graphical Menus
Menu Bar
Pull-Down Menu
Cascading Menus
Pop-up Menus
Tear-off Menus
Iconic Menus
Pie Menus
Default Menu Items
Functions Not Represented by Default Items
Graphical Menu Examples
Window Characteristics
The Attraction of Windows
Constraints in Window System Design
Components of a Window
Frame
Title Bar
Title Bar Icon
Window Sizing Buttons
What’s This? Button
Status Bar
Scroll Bars
Split Box
Toolbar
Command Area
Size Grip
Work Area
Window Presentation Styles
Tiled Windows
Overlapping Windows
Cascading Windows
Picking a Presentation Style
Types of Windows
Primary Window
Secondary Windows
Dialog Boxes
Property Sheets and Property Inspectors
Message Boxes
Palette Windows
Pop-up Windows
Window Management
Single-Document Interface
Multiple-Document Interface
Workbooks
Projects
Organizing Window Functions
Window Organization
Number of Windows
Window Operations
Active Window
General Guidelines
Opening a Window
Sizing Windows
Window Placement
Window Separation
Moving a Window
Resizing a Window
Other Operations
Window Shuffling
Keyboard Control/Mouseless Operation
Closing a Window
Web Systems
Frames
Pop-Up Windows
Select the Proper Device-Based Controls
Characteristics of Device-Based Controls
Trackball
Joystick
Graphic Tablet
Touch Screen
Light Pen
Voice
Mouse
Keyboard
Selecting the Proper Device-Based Controls
Keyboard versus Mouse
Control Research
Guidelines for Selecting the Proper Device-Based Control
Pointer Guidelines
Choose the Proper Screen- Based Controls
Operable Controls
Buttons
Text Entry/Read-Only Controls
Text Boxes
Selection Controls
Check Boxes
Palettes
List Boxes
List View Controls
Drop-down/Pop-up List Boxes
Combination Entry/Selection Controls
Spin Boxes
Combo Boxes
Drop-down/Pop-up Combo Boxes
Other Operable Controls
Slider
Tabs
Date-Picker
Tree View
Custom Controls
Presentation Controls
Static Text Fields
Group Boxes
Column Headings
ToolTips
Balloon Tips
Progress Indicators
Sample Box
Scrolling Tickers
Selecting the Proper Controls
Entry versus Selection—A Comparison
Comparison of GUI Controls
Control Selection Criteria
Choosing a Control Form
Examples
Example 1
Words, Sentences, Messages, and Text
Words
Sentences and Messages
Messages
Text
Window Title
Text for Web Pages
Error Messages
Instructions
Links
Page Title
Headings and Headlines
Provide Effective Feedback and Guidance and Assistance
Providing the Proper Feedback
Response Time
Dealing with Time Delays
Images and Symbols
Color, Sequence, and Functionality
Requirements Determination and Testing
Accessibility
Types of Disabilities
Accessibility Design
Create Meaningful Graphics, Icons and Images
Icons
Kinds of Icons
Characteristics of Icons
Influences on Icon Usability
Choosing Icons
Choosing Images
Creating Images
Drawing Images
Icon Animation and Audition
The Design Process
Screen Presentation
Multimedia
Graphics
Images
Photographs/Pictures
Video
Diagrams
Drawings
Animation
Audition
Combining Mediums
Color—What Is It?
Dithering
Color Uses
Color as a Formatting Aid
Color as a Visual Code
Other Color Uses
Possible Problems with Color
High Attention-Getting Capacity
Interference with Use of Other Screens
Varying Sensitivity of the Eye to Different Colors
Color-Viewing Deficiencies
Cross-Disciplinary and Cross-Cultural Differences
Color—What the Research Shows
Color and Human Vision
The Lens
The Retina
Choosing Colors
Choosing Colors for Categories of Information
Colors in Context
Usage
Discrimination and Harmony
Emphasis
Common Meanings
Location
Foregrounds and Backgrounds
Three-Dimensional Look
Color Palette, Defaults, and Customization
Gray Scale
Text in Color
Monochromatic Screens
Cultural, Disciplinary, and Accessibility Considerations
Choosing Colors for Textual Graphic Screens
Effective Foreground/Background Combinations
Table 12.3 Effective Foreground/Background Combinations
Choose the Background First
Maximum of Four Colors
Use Colors in Toolbars Sparingly
Test the Colors
Choosing Colors for Statistical Graphics Screens
Number of Colors
Backgrounds
Size
Status
Measurements and Area-Fill Patterns
Physical Impressions
Choosing Colors for Web Pages
Uses of Color to Avoid
Organizing and Laying Out Screens
Organization Guidelines
Control Navigation
Window Guidelines
Web Page Guidelines
Screen Examples
The Purpose of Usability Testing
The Importance of Usability Testing
Scope of Testing
Prototypes
Hand Sketches and Scenarios
Interactive Paper Prototypes
Programmed Facades
Prototype-Oriented Languages
Comparisons of Prototypes
Kinds of Tests
Guidelines Review
Heuristic Evaluation
Cognitive Walkthroughs
Think-Aloud Evaluations
Usability Test
Classic Experiments
Focus Groups
Choosing a Testing Method
Developing and Conducting the Test
The Test Plan
Test Participants
Test Conduct and Data Collection
Analyze, Modify, and Retest
Evaluate the Working System
Additional Reading
A Final Word
References
Index
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HUMAN COMPUTER INTERFACE

HUMAN COMPUTER INTERFACE

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Published by Praveen Kumar K K

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Published by: Praveen Kumar K K on Apr 11, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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