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Improvement of Distributed Virtual Environment (DVE) performance

Improvement of Distributed Virtual Environment (DVE) performance

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Published by ijcsis
Distributed virtual Environment enables multiple users to interact with each other over a network. Due to the availability of high bandwidth and fast graphics cards, these systems grow in term of number of users, Scene Complexity and interactivity. However, the issue of how efficient the system scales as the number of users increase is major problem that DVE faced since their inception.
In this paper, we propose a new method in order to improve DVE performance using Data-Mining. A widely used mining technique is markov chain model, which depend on predicting the future user moves based on the history of his previous visits to the DVE System. This will help decreasing information exchange between users, which should in turn enable improvement in the walk through in the distributed virtual environment system (DVE).
Distributed virtual Environment enables multiple users to interact with each other over a network. Due to the availability of high bandwidth and fast graphics cards, these systems grow in term of number of users, Scene Complexity and interactivity. However, the issue of how efficient the system scales as the number of users increase is major problem that DVE faced since their inception.
In this paper, we propose a new method in order to improve DVE performance using Data-Mining. A widely used mining technique is markov chain model, which depend on predicting the future user moves based on the history of his previous visits to the DVE System. This will help decreasing information exchange between users, which should in turn enable improvement in the walk through in the distributed virtual environment system (DVE).

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Published by: ijcsis on Apr 11, 2011
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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 3, 2011
Improvement of Distributed Virtual Environment(DVE) performance
Olfat I. EL-Mahi
Computer Graphics departmentIRI institute- MuCSATBorg EL-Arabe, EgyptOlfat.ibrahim@gmail.com
Hanan Ali
Computer Graphics departmentIRI institute- MuCSATBorg EL-Arab, Egypt
Walaa M. Sheta
Computer Graphics departmentIRI institute- MuCSATBorg EL-Arab, Egyptwsheta@mucsat.sci.eg
Salwa Nassar 
Electronic Research InstituteCairo, Egyptsnassar@narss.sci.eg
Abstract 
— 
Distributed virtual Environment enables multipleusers to interact with each other over a network. Due to theavailability of high bandwidth and fast graphics cards, thesesystems grow in term of number of users, Scene Complexity andinteractivity. However, the issue of how efficient the system scalesas the number of users increase is major problem that DVE facedsince their inception.In this paper, we propose a new method in order to improve DVEperformance using Data-Mining. A widely used mining techniqueis markov chain model, which depend on predicting the futureuser moves based on the history of his previous visits to the DVESystem. This will help decreasing information exchange betweenusers, which should in turn enable improvement in the walkthrough in the distributed virtual environment system (DVE).
Keywords-component; HLA, DVE, Markov chan model.
I.
 
I
NTRODUCTION
 Due to The Major production of high performance graphiccards that is offer a good frame rate rendering and availabilityof cheap networks with high bandwidth the field of DistributedVirtual Environment (DVE) system has attracted a greater interest from researchers in the past few years. This was inorder to fill in the argent need for customers demands raised inthis field. These systems permit more than one user users,working on different Locations, which are interconnectedthrough different networks to interact in a shared virtual world[1]. Its aim is to simultaneously allow the participating users toshare one virtual world, interact with it and with each other andgive them the feeling of a real experience. It does that byrendering images of the virtual environment and the updatinginformation of other users participating on it as long as the user continues into his navigation experience. Each user participating in the system is represented by avatar. Becausesystem provide real time visual interacting, Each avatar on thesystem will not only be responsible on performing thecomputes for his own behavior and publish them to thenetwork but it must accurately represent all other entitiesparticipating in the DVE.Because different avatars participating in one DVE System.DVE Systems performance can face some difficulties:1.
 
Different usurer’s background and experiences:different applications can deal with different user aimsand responses and background experiences. Thisshould effect on user communication rate with other users. Also the application itself may have a lot of different options to switch between. This could causethe system to be heavy or even stop responding due tothe multiple switches.2.
 
Different network: users can interact through differentnetworks technologies with various speeds andcapabilities. This variation could have some effect onthe DVE system performance.3.
 
Different Computer resources: the performance of computer device can change dramatically dependingon its memory size and speed, its visual graphic cardtype and capability and its processor.According to this variation on user’s platforms, producingDVE System with high performance and wide scalabilitybecome a great challenge. One of the Key issues to achieve thischallenge is by targeting Network Traffic Reduction methods.Reducing the number of messages needed to be transferredbetween users will directly scale the number of users that canparticipate and receive accepted Quality of Service (QOS). Anumber of solutions were exhibit for this problem like dead-reckoning technique which offers some level of independenceto users [2, 3]; broad cast or multi cast solutions which allowsome way of decreasing number of exchanged messages andkeep the system consistency [4-6]. Another method focused onload balance between servers to maintain high systemperformance [1].This paper demonstrating a new methodology based onrecognizing navigation history of different users types andbackground to perform some common behaviors or targetswhile walking in a certain virtual world in different timeintervals during the day. Building some information bank for 
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287 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 3, 2011
different users should later help in predicting there next step.This should help in decreasing the need for data exchangethrough the Network. And as a result will help improvingSystem QOS.A prototype built using Virtual City Simulation to applymulti-servers architecture using data distribution management(DDM) service provided onto the High Level Architecture(HLA) protocol, which our system built, based on it. But evenwith this technique the system still acquired to provideinformation about current and future navigators positions.Increasing in the number of users or processes in the DVEsystem lead to exhaustion of available network bandwidth dueto the quadratic increase in network traffic. We try to identify amethod to recognize a pattern (e.g. a sequences), learned fromusers database using Markov Chain model. Predicting whatwould be the frequent directions for each user. That shouldsave a lot of bandwidth because the user will not have to sendhis current position update or spread other users location unlessit is came with different frequencies or directions then hisusual.Markov chains have recently been used to model user navigational behavior on the World Wide Web (WWW) [7, 8].In our work, a framework will be implemented for buildingdistributed simulations. This framework based on High levelarchitecture (HLA) protocol for applying client-server architecture and then a method will be proposed for constructing a Markov model of a users paths prediction basedon past visitor behavior. Using it should assist users to navigatethe DVE system.II.
 
ELATED
W
ORK 
 Earlier systems, such as NPSNET [4, 9] and DIVE [10], areimplemented in a peer-to-peer architecture. This approach hasminimal communication overheads, but may not scale well tohandle many simultaneous clients due to the saturation of network bandwidth in handling broadcast or multicastmessages from the clients. To improve scalability, systemssuch as Brick Net [11], Community Place [12]and MASSIVE-3[13], are implemented in client-server architecture. With thisapproach, each client sends messages to the server for further propagation to other clients and/or server in the same VE. Theadvantages of this approach are that the server may performmessage filtering to minimize the amount of messages neededto be handled by each client and to be propagated through thenetwork. The major limitation, however, is that as the number of clients accessing the VE increases, the amount of messagesneeded to be sent among them increases dramatically. Theserver loading in managing the VE and handling the messagesalso increases significantly. Another problem is that the server may potentially become a single point of failure.A distributed VE system with a multi-server architecture couldsolve these problems. The VE may be partitioned into regions,and each of which is assigned to a separate server, distributingthe workload among them. This may also prevent the singlepoint of failure problem if clients can be dynamicallyconnected to different servers. Systems adopting this approachinclude RING [14], Net Effect [15] and Citation [16].In our proposed DVE System we apply multi-serversarchitecture using data distribution management (DDM)service provided onto the High Level Architecture (HLA)protocol, which our system built, based on it. But even withthis technique the system still acquired to provide informationabout current and future navigators positions. Increasing in thenumber of users or processes in the DVE system lead toexhaustion of available network bandwidth due to thequadratic increase in network traffic. We try to identify amethod to recognize a pattern (e.g. a sequences), learned fromusers database using Markov Chain model. Predicting whatwould be the frequent directions for each user. That shouldsave a lot of bandwidth because the user will not have to sendhis current position update or spread other users locationunless it is came with different frequencies or directions thenhis usual.III.
 
M
ARKOV
C
HAIN
M
ODELS
Markov chain concerns about a sequence of randomvariables. These variables are corresponding to the states of acertain system, in such a way that the state at one time epochdepends only on the one in the previous time epoch. It couldbe defined in the following matter:Given some sequence x of length L, we can ask how probablethe sequence is given our model. For any probabilistic modelof sequences, we can write this probability as:Key property of a (1st order) Markov chain: theprobability of each Xi depends only on Xi-1:For example consider a user navigating into a cityconsists of 17 streets. Each street labeled with alphabeticcharacter to trace user navigation into it. The markov chainmodel will be defined in the following manner:
 
A set of states: representing by the streets labels “A,B, …, W”
 
A set of transitions with associated probabilities:represent the user move from one street to the nextone.Consider the user move in the path “Fig. 1”:The probability for this path will be calculated withthe following equation:The Markov prosperity specifies the probability of astate depends only on the previous state. But we can buildmore “memory” into our states by using higher order Markovchain. In a k-th ordered Markov model.
 
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288 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 3, 2011
i.e., ith value is independent of all but the previous k value.For the same user path in the previous example the3rd order markov chain the path probability will be:
Pr(U | BSCSO) = Pr(U | CSO )Where i = 6, K = 3
IV.
 
Our proposed DVE systemThe proposed DVE system mainly consists of three parts:Virtual System, Distributed Virtual Environment and Data-Mining Engine. They incorporate together ‘like in Fig (2)’ tosimulate an experience of real time interaction betweenparticipate users in the chosen shared virtual environment. Andtry to provide the best quality of service available for each user.Each of the previous parts will be discussed briefly next,giving a general idea of their mechanism and how they work.
A.
 
The Shared Virtual Environment 
Creating a virtual environment can take as long as creating thewhole DVE system. It is considered to be the core of any DVESystem. Also Buying Virtual Environments to be used as atesting data set costing thousands of dollars. So we proposedvirtual environment system constructor (Vcit) to create thesimulated virtual Environment. It is creating virtual cityAccording to the standard city design rules[17, 18].It automatically generates cities include the standard maincomponents” streets, highways, intersections, blocks, areas“fig. 3”. The cities generated with different Size, Distribution,and layout and it deal with twenty different building types“Table. 1”.The Vcit generator consists of two main parts “Fig. 4”:1)
 
Data Set Generator:
Determine City Size, Distribution,layout and properties for the city and each building on it.It is generated using Sybase DBMS. The output isgenerated as a text file comes in two different formatsdepending on the chosen layout for the virtual city “Fig.5”:
o
 
Using different texture.
o
 
Using different RGB
5
Figure 2. The general structure of proposed DVE systemFigure 3. The standard main components of any created cityFigure 1. Example of user movement steps in the pathTable 1. Different Building types.Figure 4. The two main parts of the VcitFigure 5. The different possible layout for virtual city using Vcit
289 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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