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J. Kim - Gravitational Field of a Moving Point Particle

J. Kim - Gravitational Field of a Moving Point Particle

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JournaloftheKoreanPhysicalSociety.Vol.
27.
No.5.October
1994.
pp.
484-492
GravitationalFieldofaMovingPointParticle
Iaegu
KIM
DepartmentofPhysics,KangwonNationalUniversity,Chunchon200-701
(Received6July1994)ThegravitationalfieldofamovingpointparticleisobtainedinamanifestlyLorentzcovariantformforbothunchargedandchargedcases.Thegeneralrelativisticpropertimeintervalatthelocationoftheparticleisthesameasthespecialrelativisticoneandboththegravitationalandelectromagneticselfforcesvanish.whichareconsistentwiththeequationsofmotionofthepointparticle.Inthestaticlimit.themetricreducestotheSchwarzschildmetricinisotropiccoordinates.Theisotropiccoordinatesthusturnouttobethemostnaturalcoordinatestodescribeapointparticle.Also.themetrictensorwhichrepresentstheshockwavegeneratedbyamasslessparticlemovingwiththespeedoflightisobtainedfromthezero-masslimit.
I.
INTRODUCTION
TherehasbeenagreatdealofefforttofindgeneralexactsolutionstotheEinsteinequationssincethepubli-cationofgeneralrelativity.However,ascomparedtoasimplelinearequationinNewtoniantheory,theEinsteinequationsareverycomplicatedcouplednonlinearequa-tions.Themetrictensorhastenindependentcompo-nentsinsteadofone,andtheEinsteinequationsaretencoupledequationsofeighth,ratherthanfirst,degree.Moreover,eachequationhasalargenumberoftermswhichcanhardlybehandledbyanyanalyticmethod.Duetothiscomplexity,thereisnogeneralmethodofsolvingtheequations.However,theequationshavebeensolvedinafewcasesinwhichthenumberofvariablesisreducedbysymmetryconditionsonthemetrictensor.Thecommonlyimposedsymmetriesaretimeindepend-ence,sphericalsymmetry,andaxialsymmetry,fromwhichtheSchwarzschildsolution.l!'theReissner-Nord-stromsolution.l'"theKerrsolution.l'"andtheKerr-New-mansolution'<'areobtained.Thesesolutionsdescribestaticgravitationalfieldsofanisolatedobject.However,thesesolutionshaveasingularitywhichisbelievedtobeunavoidable.Duetothesingularity,itseemsinappro-priatetoconsiderthemasthegravitationalfieldsofapointparticle.Onewayofavoidingthesingularityistoidentifyaparticlewithamultiplyconnectedtopologyinemptyspace,whichledtotheideaofanEinstein-Ro-senbridge[5]andawormhole.l'"Anotherattemptwasmadebydescribinganelementaryparticleasanextend-edobject;anelectronisregardedasachargedrotatingshell,whoseexteriorisdescribedbytheKerr-NewmanmetricandwhoseinteriorismatchedtoanonsingularsolutiontotheEinsteinequational"Suchmodels,how-ever,areplaguedbyvariousunphysicalfeatures.Forasystemofmanyparticles,onecannotimposeanysymmetryconditionsbecauseparticlesareforcedtomoveundermutualinteraction.Hence,theexactso-lutionforamanyparticlesystemisexpectedtobeverycomplicated.Nobodyhassucceededinfindingsuchanexactsolutionforeventhesimplestcaseoftwoparticles.Instead,oneusuallyreliesonanapproximationmethodbyexpandingthemetrictensorintoapowerseriesofasmallparameter.Einsteinetal.[HIused
lie
asthesmallparameterandobtainedarelativisticcorrectionoftheorder
lle
2
totheNewtoniantheory.Theirmethodisknownastheslowapproximationmethodsinceitisbasedontheassumptionthatthetimederivativeofanyfieldquantityismuchsmallerthanthespatialderiva-tives.However,suchanunsymmetricaltreatmentoftimeandspacecoordinatesgoesagainstthespiritofthetheoryofrelativity.HavasandGoldberg-'"usedtheNew-toniangravitationalconstantGasthesmallparameterandobtainedaLorentzcovariantapproximation.Thisisknownasthefastapproximationmethodbecauseitcanbeappliedtothestudyoffastmovingbodiesandbecauseitalsoallowstheinvestigationofgravitationalradiationdamping.Themethodusedinthisworkisanalogoustothis,butitisnotanapproximation.OneremarkablefeatureofgeneralrelativityisthattheequationsofmotionofmatterarecontainedintheEinsteinequations+'?'
In
solvingtheEinsteinequations,onethushastousetheequationsofmotion.Whenonesetsuptheequationsofmotion,however,oneexpectsthepropertimeandtheChristoffelsymbolstodivergeatthelocationoftheparticlesothattheequationsofmotioncontaininfiniteself-actiontermsandmayevenbeincosistent.WhenonesolvestheequationsofmotionintheNewtoniantheory,onesimplydropstheinfiniteself-actiontermsbyhand.However,ingeneralrelativity,
-484-
 
GravitationalFieldofaMovingPointParticle-Iaegu
KIM
thereisnowayofdroppingtheself-actiontermsconsist-entlyduetothenonlinearityofthetheory.Carmeli[l1]exploredthepossibilityofobtainingequationsofmotionwhichwerefreeofinfiniteself-actiontermsundercer-tainassumptions.Inthiswork,wewillshowthatthepropertimeatthelocationoftheparticleisthesameasthespecialrelativisticoneandthattheself-actionvan-ishesifwechoosethepropercoordinatesystem.Anotherimportantfeatureofgeneralrelativityisarbitrarinessinthechoiceofacoordinatesystem.Ineverytextbookongeneralrelativity,thearbitrarinessinthechoiceofacoordinatesystemisstressedfromthebeginning.Thisarbitrariness,however,shouldbeunderstoodwithcaution.Spacetimeisamanifold
M
onwhichaLorentzmetric
gllv
isdefined.Thus,anonlinearcoordinatetransformationdistortsthetopologyofthemanifold
M.
Hence,oneshouldnotprejudiceinadvanceanyaspectoftheglobaltopologyofthemanifold
M.
Thearbitrarinessincoordinatesthusraisesthedifficultprob-lemofdistinguishingbetweenrealphysicaleffectsandcoordinateeffects.
It
alsoraisesanequivalenceprob-lem,D2]namely,thequestionwhethertwogivensolu-tionstotheEinsteinequationsdescribethesamegravi-tationalfield.However,thesolutiontothisproblemcanbegivenonlylocally,andnotglobally.Duetothis,evenifwehavesolvedtheEinsteinequations,wearestillleftwiththeproblemofdeterminingglobaltopologyofspace-time.WewillconsiderthisprobleminconjunctionwiththeSchwarzschildsolution.Inthiswork,weconsiderthegravitationalfieldofamovingpointparticleasthefirststeptowardtheexactsolutionforthemanybodyproblemingeneralrelativity.WeavoidthearbitrarinessofcoordinatesbychoosingacoordinatesystemanalogoustoaninertialframesuchthatthespacetimemetricreducestotheMinkowskimet-ricasthemassoftheparticleapproacheszero.SincethebackgroundspacetimeisaMinkowskispace,wecankeepLorentzcovarianceateverystageofcalculation.Theideaisasfollows:Supposethatweexpandthemet-rictensor,theRiccitensor,andtheenergy-momentumtensorintopowerserieswithrespecttothegravitationalconstantC.SolvingtheEinsteinequationsorderbyor-derinaLorentzcovariantway,weobtainthemetrictensorinaLorentzcovariantform.Now,collectingthetermswiththesameLorentztensors,wecanexpressthemetrictensorasasumofLorentzcovarianttermsandeachterminthesumasaproductofaLorentzinvar-iantquantityandaLorentzcovarianttensor.BecausethenumbersofLorentzinvariantquantitiesandLorentzcovarianttensorsarelimited,themetrictensorcanbeexpressedinasimpleform.Fromthisargument,wecanmakeanansatzforthemetrictensorinaLorentzcovariantform.SubstitutingtheansatzforthemetrictensorintotheEinsteinequations,weobtainasetofordinarydifferentialequationswhichcanbesolvedstraightforwardly.Thispaperisorganizedasfollows:InSec.II,wesolve
-485-
thelinearizedEinsteinequationsforamovingpointpar-ticleinaLorentzcovariantwayincloseanalogywithelectromagnetism.Wealsoinvestigatehowtheequa-tionsofmotionfollowfromthefieldequationsbyana-lyzingthelinearizedEinsteinequations.SectionIIIde-scribesthefullnonlinearfieldequations.Wemakeanan-satzforthemetrictensorfromourknowledgeofthesolutionofthelinearizedequations.Substitutingthean-satzforthemetrictensorintotheEinsteinequations,whicharepartialdifferentialequations,weobtainasetofordinarydifferentialequations.Solvingtheseordinarydifferentialequationswiththeproperlinearizedlimit,weobtainanexplicitformofthemetrictensorforamov-ingpointparticle.Wenextexaminethepropertimeatthelocationoftheparticleandtheself-actiontocheckconsistencywiththeequationsofmotion.Wealsoconsid-ertheequivalenceproblemforthesolutioninconnec-tionwiththeglobaltopologyoftheSchwarzschildgeo-metry.Then,weobtainthemetrictensorforamasslessparticlewhichmoveswiththespeedoflightbytakingthezero-masslimit.Finally,inSec.IV,wediscussourresultanditsimplications.NotationalconventionsandsomeusefulidentitiesarelistedinAppendix
A,
andthemethodsofsolvingthenonlineardifferentialequationsinSec.IIIarebrieflydescribedinAppendix
B.
Weuseunitsinwhichc
=
C
=
1andtheflatspacetimemetric
1}pv=
diag(-1,1,1,1).
II.LINEARIZEDEQUATIONS
Inthissection,wewillsolvetheMaxwellequationsforapointchargeinaLorentzcovariantway.Then,wewillanalyzethelinearizedEinsteinequationsincloseanalogywiththeMaxwellequations.TheLagrangiandensityfortheMaxwellfieldsinGaussianunitsisgivenby
1
.r=-
16lTFIlVFllv,
andthefieldequationsare
a2AI'-oliovAv=
-4lTjll'
(2.1)(2.2)
SinceEq,
(2.2)
isnotdirectlyinvertible,weaddagaugefixingterm
JCF=-
8;(
(O·A)2
totheLagrangiandensityandobtainthemodifiedfieldequations
(2.3)
a
2
A
Il
-(1-~)al'oVAv=
+An];
TosolveEq,
(2.4),
weintroducetheGreen'sfunctionsatisfying
(2.4)
 
-486-
JournaloftheKoreanPhysicalSociety.Vol.27.No.5.October1994
Solvingtheseequations,weobtaintheretardedGreen's
J=
41
(iJAhIlV)(iJ;..hllv)-
41
(iJ;"h)(iJAh)
function
G~~(x)=
O(x°)[(l
+
~)11Ilvc5(x2)-
2(1-
~)xllxvc5'(xZ)].(2.6)
Now,letapointcharge
q
movealongtheworldline
ro(t)
withfourvelocity
u"
(t).
Thecurrentdensityfourvectorhasthedeltafunctionexpression
jll=rTt)ull(t)c5(R(t»,
where
(2.7)
R(t)
=
r-ro(t).
(2.8)
UsingtheGreen'sfunctioninEq,(2.6)andsolvingfor
All'
weobtaintheLienard-Wiechertpotential
Ally(t')[R(t')-R(t')'I)(t')]'
(2.9)where
r
istheretardedtimegivenby
i-r
=R(t')
=
IR(t')I.
(2.10)Itshouldbenotedthat
A
u
inEq.(2.9)doesnotdependonthegaugefixingparameter?Sincetheretardedtimesatisfiesthelight-coneconstraint
t-
r
=
R(t'),
wecandefineanullfourvector
RIl(t')
withcomponents
RIl
(t')
=
(R(t'),R(t'».
(2.11)
Takingscalarproductofthisnullvectorwiththefourvelocity
u"
(t')
ofthepointcharge,weobtainaLorentzinvariantquantity
R·u
=-
Y(t')[R(t')-R(t')·u(t')].
(2.12)Here,thetimevariablesinRand
u
onthelefthandsideof
Eq,
(2.12)areomitted.Fromnowon,itshouldbeunderstoodthatallthetimevariablesomittedin
RJ1
and
u
ll
shouldbetakenastheretardedtime
t',
IntermsoftheLorentzinvariantquantity
u,
wecanexpress
AI'
inamanifestlyLorentzcovariantformas
(2.13)
It
shouldbenotedthattheGreen'sfunction
G~e!
(x)
in
Eq,
(2.6)isinfinitefor
~=
00,
whichcorrespondstothecasebeforeweaddthegaugefixingtermtotheLag-rangiandensity.Thus,itmaybepossiblethat
Eq,
(2.13)satisfiesEq,
(2.4),
butnotEq.(2.2).However.since
All
inEq.(2.13)satisfiestheLorentzgaugecondition
iJIlAIl=O(2.14)
regardlessofthetimedependenceof
u",
italsosatisfiesthefieldequations
(2.2).
Therefore,theequationsofmotionofthepointchargeareindependentofthefieldequations.Wewillseethatthisisnotthecasewiththegravitationalfield.Wenowtumtothefieldequationsoflinearizedgrav-ity.TheLagrangiandensityforlinearizedgravityisgivenby(2.15a)where
h=h/.
Thefieldequationsare(2.15b)
iJZhllv-iJlliJAhAV-iJviJAhi1A
+
111lviJAiJPhAp+iJlliJvh-TJllviJ2h=-16JTTJ1v.
(2.16)Sincetheseequationsarenotdirectlyinvertible,weaddagaugefixingterm111
JGF=
2~
(iJAhllA-ZiJllh)(iJPhw-ZiJllh)
totheLagrangiandensityandobtainmodifiedfield
(2.17)
equations:
1
iJ2hllv-(1-7)(iJlliJAhAv+iJviJAhllA)
1
+(1-7)(11IlviJAiJPh),p+iJlliJvh)
1
-(1-
2(TJllviJ
2
h=-16JTTllv.
(2.18)
IntroductingtheGreen'sfunctionwhichsatisfies
1
iJ2Gllv.a{3(x)-(1-7)[0
11
iJAGAV.a{3
(x)
+
iJviJAGi1A.a{3
(x)]
+(1-~)[TJllviJAiJPG),p.a{3(x)+l1),piJlliJvGAP.a{3(x)]
1
-(1-
2~)11IlvTJApiJ2G),p,a{3(x)
(2.19)
weobtaintheretardedGreen'sfunction
G~a{3(x)
=
Bt?
{[~(TJllaTJv{3+TJIl{3TJva)
=n»
l1a{3]c5(x2)
-(l-~)(l1J1aXvX{3+1lll{3XvXa
(2.20)
TheconceptofapointparticleiswellestablishedinMinkowskispace.Considerapointparticlemovingalongtheworldline
ro(t)
withfourvelocity
ull(t).
Theenergy-momentumtensorhasthedeltafunctionsingularity
pe-
culiartothepointparticle:
m
Tllv=y(t)
u,
(t)u
v
(t)c5(R(t».
UsingtheGreen'sfunctioninEq.(2.20)andintegrating,weobtaintheLienard-Wiechertpotentialcorrespondingtospin2field:(2.21)

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