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Coping With Destitution: Survival and livelihood strategies of refused asylum seekers living in the UK

Coping With Destitution: Survival and livelihood strategies of refused asylum seekers living in the UK

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Published by Oxfam
Coping with Destitution uncovers how the hundreds of thousands of refused asylum seekers currently living in the UK, with no access to legitimate means of securing a livelihood, survive on a day-to-day and longer-term basis. The strategies adopted by destitute asylum seekers have been analysed within a sustainable livelihoods framework, to ensure a systematic understanding of the different types of resources to which asylum seekers do – and do not – have access, and the impact this has on their lives.

This approach also helped to identify changes to government policy that could help prevent destitution among refused asylum seekers. Fundamentally, the need to remain hidden and to avoid any risk of being deported affects every decision made by destitute asylum seekers, and in turn the coping strategies which they adopt.

The survival strategies adopted by destitute asylum seekers are a consequence of asylum policy in the UK. That hundreds of thousands of people would rather live in poverty and in constant fear of deportation – reliant on friends, transactional relationships, commercial sex work or low-paid illegal work – rather than return to their country of origin, suggests the failure of government policy.

It is not acceptable for asylum seekers to continue to live in destitution, and the government has a responsibility to ensure that the human rights of asylum seekers are upheld. The humiliating and degrading strategies adopted by destitute asylum seekers to survive and avoid deportation reflects the need for changes to government and civil-society policy and practice.

All aspects of the asylum system – including the flawed asylum-determination process that often leads to wrongful denial of asylum, and policies that deny access to resources (such as the right to work and access to welfare support) – must be urgently reviewed to ensure that all asylum seekers are able to secure a sustainable and dignified livelihood.
Coping with Destitution uncovers how the hundreds of thousands of refused asylum seekers currently living in the UK, with no access to legitimate means of securing a livelihood, survive on a day-to-day and longer-term basis. The strategies adopted by destitute asylum seekers have been analysed within a sustainable livelihoods framework, to ensure a systematic understanding of the different types of resources to which asylum seekers do – and do not – have access, and the impact this has on their lives.

This approach also helped to identify changes to government policy that could help prevent destitution among refused asylum seekers. Fundamentally, the need to remain hidden and to avoid any risk of being deported affects every decision made by destitute asylum seekers, and in turn the coping strategies which they adopt.

The survival strategies adopted by destitute asylum seekers are a consequence of asylum policy in the UK. That hundreds of thousands of people would rather live in poverty and in constant fear of deportation – reliant on friends, transactional relationships, commercial sex work or low-paid illegal work – rather than return to their country of origin, suggests the failure of government policy.

It is not acceptable for asylum seekers to continue to live in destitution, and the government has a responsibility to ensure that the human rights of asylum seekers are upheld. The humiliating and degrading strategies adopted by destitute asylum seekers to survive and avoid deportation reflects the need for changes to government and civil-society policy and practice.

All aspects of the asylum system – including the flawed asylum-determination process that often leads to wrongful denial of asylum, and policies that deny access to resources (such as the right to work and access to welfare support) – must be urgently reviewed to ensure that all asylum seekers are able to secure a sustainable and dignified livelihood.

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Published by: Oxfam on Apr 12, 2011
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08/15/2013

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www.swan.ac.uk/cmprwww.oxfam.org.uk
 
Coping with Destitution
Survival and livelihood strategies of refused asylumseekers living in the UK 
Heaven Crawley, Joanne Hemmings andNeil Price
Centre for Migration Policy Research (CMPR),Swansea University
February 2011
 
EM
 
OXFAMRESEARCHREPORT
 
 
 
Coping with Destitution 
, Oxfam GB Research Report February 2011
2
About the authors
Professor Heaven Crawley is Director of the Centre for Migration Policy Research(CMPR) at Swansea University. Heaven has undertaken research and analysis on variousaspects of UK asylum policy and practice over the past 15 years, including gender issuesin the asylum process, access to legal representation, the conduct of asylum interviews atports, the detention of asylum-seeking children, age disputes and the process of ageassessment, and the factors that influence public attitudes towards asylum and asylumseekers. Heaven was previously Head of Asylum Research at the Home Office, AssociateDirector of the Institute for Public Policy Research (ippr) and Director of AMREConsulting.Dr Joanne Hemmings specialises in participatory, qualitative research methods withOptions Consultancy Services. Her background is in conducting research in sexual andreproductive health for health and social marketing programmes. She has worked withthe Participatory Ethnographic Evaluation and Research (PEER) method to investigate arange of sensitive issues, in the UK, the Caribbean, Central America, South-East Asia andSub-Saharan Africa.Professor Neil Price was Director of the Centre for Development Studies at SwanseaUniversity at the time of the research and is a CMPR Research Associate. He holds adoctorate in social anthropology, and has undertaken ethnographic fieldwork andcommissioned research throughout Sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, Latin America and theMiddle East. His main areas of expertise are in social, policy and institutional analysis inthe health sector, and in the planning and evaluation of livelihoods, HIV/AIDS andreproductive health programmes.
About the Centre for Migration Policy Research
The Centre for Migration Policy Research (CMPR) is an inter-disciplinary research centrebased at Swansea University. The Centre was established in 2007.Asylum and migration issues have never been higher on the political and policy agendas.The unprecedented global movement of people seeking protection, employment andfamily reunion poses economic, social and political opportunities and challenges. Theseopportunities and challenges have local, regional, national and international dimensions.
In this context, the Centre‟s mission is to encourage the e
xchange of ideas about asylumand migration and ensure that policy-making is underpinned by empirical evidenceabout the nature and causes of migration, the impacts on different countries andcommunities, and the effects
both intended and unintended
of policy responses.
The Centre‟s approach is underpinned by three key principles: a commitment to a rights
-based approach to migration; a desire to understand and reflect the migrant experience;and recognition of the importance of policy-relevant research and analysis. CMPR isparticularly keen to ensure that its research is accessible to a wide range of audiences, andis timely and policy-relevant. Members of the Centre work closely with policy-makersand practitioners in Wales, the UK, Europe and beyond to raise awareness of problemsand issues, analyse underlying issues, model policy impacts and evaluate policyoutcomes.More information about the Centre for Migration Policy Research can be found atwww.swansea.ac.uk/cmpr or email migration@swansea.ac.uk to be added to the mailinglist and receive details of future research and events.
 
 
Coping with Destitution 
, Oxfam GB Research Report February 2011
3
List of acronyms
ASAP Asylum Support Appeals ProjectJCHR Joint Committee on Human RightsNAO National Audit OfficeNASS National Asylum Support Service (now known as Asylum Support)NI National InsurancePEER Participatory Ethnographic Evaluation and ResearchRCO Refugee Community OrganisationUKBA United Kingdom Border Agency

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