Globe/ball valves are used with some of thepump and other kits and can be used for flowcontrol as well as isolation, where flow mayneed to be adjusted to suit requirements.
Non return/check valves only allow flow inone direction, particularly used in the pump kits,e.g. foot valves used at the end of a suctionhose to stop it emptying when not is use.
Float valves automatically maintain the waterlevel in a tank by closing up when a tank is full,which is useful to prevent accidental overfilling.While they are included as part of the SSF kit,these valves have to be ordered separately ifrequired elsewhere in a system.In addition two other valves and water metersmay be ordered if required:
Air valves, which are usually placed at highpoints in a pipeline to allow accumulated airtrapped in a pipe to escape and to let it enterwhen a pipe is emptying. Ferrules straps couldbe used as a manual air bleed point in the shortterm, but an automatic air release valve shouldbe ordered if required. The Oxfam code G3.37,is a 6 bar rated valve, used in conjunction with aferrule strap on a 90m pipeline, which needs tobe installed in a vertical position.
Pressure reducing valves reduce pressure ina pipeline, and may be required where gravitysupply from a tank to tapstands at the bottom ofa hill creates too much pressure in the taps.Pressures higher than about 2 bar in tapstandscause flows to be excessive and the Talflo tapsare hard to open and “kick” when operated.While adjustments on the ferrule strap and gatevalves fitted to the branches can providereduction in flows, they do not reduce the statichead on the tap and are thus not recommendedsolutions as taps are difficult to open under highpressure. The Oxfam code G3.39, is a 3” classT pressure reducing valve, costs about £500and is available to be placed on the 90mmdiameter mains and provides a pressurereduction between inlet and outlet of the valveof;3 bar for flow of 13l/sec20 bar for flow of 18l/sec
Water meters, which measure cumulativewater flows, can be useful to monitor systemproduction when installed at pump/tank outlets,though at a cost of about £350- its purchaseneeds to take this into account. The Oxfam codeG3.38 is a Helix 3000 bulk water meter rated to136m
/hr (head loss 4.2m), supplied withflanges to join to 3” BSP threads.
The move towards production of metric pipemeans that Oxfam now uses metric pipe for bothPE and UPVC, though threaded galvanised pipeis still available and specified in imperial sizes.Metric pipe has slightly different pressure ratingsfrom imperial pipe, but still comes in a variety ofdifferent maximum working pressure ratings.While the 63mm PE pipe is only available in12.5 bar (SDR11, PE80), the 90mm PE pipe ismanufactured in several ratings, of which thefollowing may be useful 8 bar (SDR17, PE80),12.5 bar (SDR11, PE80) and 16 bar (SDR11,PE100). 90/110/160mm UPVC pipe is availablein the same pressure ratings. The pipe andfittings used in the Oxfam kits have a minimum 8bar rating. Where 8 bar pressures will beexceeded, this should be made clear in theequipment order.It should be noted that the maximum pressurerating for UK manufactured pipe is for a designlife period of 50 years and actual pressure atfailure is over twice the rated pressure, so thereis some margin for safety if pipe is pressuredbeyond its rating. However, this probably doesnot apply for pipe manufactured in developingcountries, as water industry standards (if theyexist) are less demanding and production qualitycontrol is likely to be poorer
Thus where it is proposed to purchase pipes locally, it is suggested that in the absence of proof of pipe quality, that the next pressure rating up is used, i.e. use 12.5 bar pipe where system pressures will reach 8 bar. Where locally procured compression couplers are used,these should be dismantled when jointing pipes to ensure full depth insertion and inserts may be required for locally procured pipes 90mm or larger, as compression couplers may otherwise squash the pipes on tightening