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Water Pumping Manual

Water Pumping Manual

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Published by Oxfam
This manual is part of a series of guides devised by the Oxfam Public Health Engineering Team to help provide a reliable water supply for populations affected by conflict or natural disaster. The equipment is designed to be used with any or all of the following Oxfam water equipment: Water Pumping equipment, Water Storage equipment, Water Filtration equipment, Water Distribution equipment, Hand-dug Well equipment, and Water Testing Kit. All are designed using available, easily transported equipment which is simple, rapidly assembled, and fully self-contained, to provide an adequate, safe water supply at moderate cost. The principles used in these packages may often be useful in long-term development projects.
This manual is part of a series of guides devised by the Oxfam Public Health Engineering Team to help provide a reliable water supply for populations affected by conflict or natural disaster. The equipment is designed to be used with any or all of the following Oxfam water equipment: Water Pumping equipment, Water Storage equipment, Water Filtration equipment, Water Distribution equipment, Hand-dug Well equipment, and Water Testing Kit. All are designed using available, easily transported equipment which is simple, rapidly assembled, and fully self-contained, to provide an adequate, safe water supply at moderate cost. The principles used in these packages may often be useful in long-term development projects.

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Published by: Oxfam on Apr 12, 2011
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06/22/2013

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1
Oxfam Water Supply Scheme for Emergencies
This equipment is part of several packages devised by the Oxfam Public Health Engineering Teamto help provide a reliable water supply for populations affected by conflict or natural disaster. Theequipment is designed to be used with any or all of the following Oxfam water equipment: WaterStorage equipment, Water Coagulation and Disinfection equipment, Water Filtration equipment,Water Distribution equipment, Well Digging equipment, and Water Testing Kit. All are designedusing available, easily transported equipment which is simple, rapidly assembled, and fully self-contained, to provide an adequate, safe water supply at moderate cost. The principles used in thesepackages may often be useful in long-term development projects.The Oxfam equipment packages, which consist of “Oxfam” tanks (steel sheets, rubber liners), dieselwater pumps, 3” PVC pipes etc, have been used successfully in the last two decades in often harshenvironments, ranging from tropical to temperate climatic areas. Although this equipment isdesigned for emergencies, if installed and protected adequately it can give many years of usefulservice, though some up-grading works will be necessary to prolong its life. This equipment can bedismantled and re-used elsewhere.However, these Oxfam equipment packages, while being simple to erect over a period of days, yetdurable enough to last several years, do not lend themselves to very rapid deployment in a fewhours. Increasingly, the nature of work which Oxfam has been called on to undertake has requiredequipment that can rapidly deployed then dismantled and moved to other locations. This has led tothe development of the so called “rapid response kits” since the mid-1990s. This type of equipmentis seen as a necessary complement to the original Oxfam equipment and is best used to provide astart up package in the absence of a detailed assessment and where affected populations are likelyto be highly mobile. The relatively higher equipment costs and lack of suitability for anything otherthan short term water supply means that the deployment of the “rapid response kits” should be usedonly where appropriate.
Read this manual through before starting installation.
Contents
SECTION A - EQUIPMENT USE AND DESIGN 2
Determining pump output 2
SECTION B - LIST OF KITS AND INSTRUCTIONS FOR USE 7
Water pumping kits 7Installation instructions 9
SECTION C - COMMISSIONING, OPERATION, SAFETY & MAINTENANCE INSTRUCTIONS 14
Commissioning 14Operational problems 15Maintenance 17Safety precations 22
SECTION D - DETAILS OF KITS AND SUPPLIERS 23
Full list of kit contents 23List of suppliers 27.Final reminders, recommendations and acknowledgements
 
2
SECTION A - EQUIPMENT USE AND SYSTEM DESIGN
The Oxfam Water Pumping equipment isdesigned to be sufficiently versatile to providepumps suitable for most emergency situations:for drawing water from surface sources; toprovide the raw water for a potable watersupply; to pump clean water from one area toanother; or for loading and unloading watertankering trucks.The Water Pumping equipment offers a range ofthree heavy-duty self-priming centrifugal pumpsclose-coupled to reliable and economical dieselengines: P2 for lower flows, P4 for high flowsand P4H for high flows at higher heads. Alighter petrol driven pump, PR2 is also availablefor carrying on water trucks or other mobileuses. The individual pump curves are shown onpage 3. The pump system curves are shown forthe maximum performance available at fullengine speed; ideally the pumps should be runat slightly lower speeds than this. Sufficienthoses and fittings are included to enable thepumps to be used either singly or incombinations for pumping water in a widevariety of situations. It is necessary to select theright number and combination of pumps for agiven situation. These pumps are intended forimmediate use in emergency situations. Theyare not necessarily the best solution for longerterm pumping needs.Although the suction pumps are intendedprimarily for pumping clean water, they willpump relatively turbid water with no problems inthe short term. They are not, however, intendedfor use as trash or sludge pumps, and requiresome degree of protection from larger particles,(the strainers provided protect from particleslarger than 10mm).Each Oxfam pump kit contains a single pump,but it is strongly recommended that there aresufficient pumps immediately available on site toensure continuing of the water supply duringperiods of breakdown, maintenance and repair.This is essential for the emergency situations forwhich they are primarily designed, where goodmaintenance facilities and the necessary skillsand consumables are often unavailable. Thereshould normally be one standby pump for eachthree service pumps, except for sites with fewpumps when a standby will be required for eachpump.Note: Persons responsible for the equipmentcovered in this manual must ensure that it isproperly and safely installed and maintained andoperated at the specified conditions. Onlyappropriately qualified staff, applying acceptablestandards of engineering practice and therecommendations contained in this document,must be employed in these activities. Any similarinstructions for the overall plant in which theequipment is to be incorporated, which have aninfluence on the equipment and application mustalso be followed. Statutory and localrequirements concerning work practices, safetyand / or health precautions must be observed.
Determining pump output
 
Pump performance or output (flow), measuredby litres/second or m
3
/hr, will be determined by:
Pump performance (varies from pump type;PR2, P2, P4, P4H) and speed of engineoperation.
Total pumping head consisting of static headand friction (head) losses in pipes.
Suction lift.
Engine derating to allow for operatingconditions - temp, altitude and humidity
 
The four sections show a number of graphs anda brief explanation is provided to help assesshow much water can be pumped in a particularsituation.
 
Pump performance
 
The performance curves for each of the fourpumps, PR2, P2, P4, P4H, are shown on page3, and these show the variation of output withhead for a range of engine speeds. To find outthe actual output for any particular installation(i.e. pumps and pipes and where they are/will belaid) it is necessary to calculate the friction(head) losses within the system and measurethe height to which the water will be delivered(static head). Head losses are calculated usingthe head loss diagram for uPVC and PE pipesprovided in the Distribution manual. Thepumping curves for pumps can then be used toread off the output (flow) at any given head for
 
3
each of the pumps and at given engineoperating speeds. The engine are supplied witha variable speed control, movement of which willgive some change in pump output. Onceadjusted to give an acceptable output thiscontrol should be locked to avoid tampering.
 
1015202530354005 10 15 2025 35 404550
TOTAL HEAD - Metres (M) 
FLOW Cubic Metres per Hour - M3/Hr
PR2 - Kestrel 101
B & S AIR-COOLED PETROL ENGINELIQUID - WATER SPECIFIC GRAVITY 1.0VARIABLE SPEED OPERATION
8/10/99
530
3  6  0  0   R  P  M   3  0  0  0   R  P  M   
1015202530354005 10 15 2025 35 404550
TOTAL HEAD - Metres (M) 
FLOW Cubic Metres per Hour - M3/Hr
P2 - Swallow 2100
LISTER AC1 AIR-COOLED DIESEL ENGINELIQUID - WATER SPECIFIC GRAVITY 1.0VARIABLE SPEED OPERATION
8/10/99
530
 
 P    P   
  
101520253035400 20 40 60 80 100 140 160 180 200
2  0  0  0   R  P  M   
TOTAL HEAD - Metres (M) 
FLOW Cubic Metres per Hour - M3/Hr
P4 - Osprey 422
LISTER TS2 AIR-COOLED DIESEL ENGINELIQUID - WATER SPECIFIC GRAVITY 1.0VARIABLE SPEED OPERATION
8/10/99
5120
 
2  2  5  0   R  P  M   
7  5  0   R  P  M   
2  5  0  0   R  P  M   
203040506070800 10 20 30 40 50 70 80 90 100
 
1 
TOTAL HEAD - Metres (M) 
FLOW Cubic Metres per Hour - M3/Hr
P4H - Condor 1001
LISTER TS3 AIR-COOLED DIESEL ENGINELIQUID - WATER SPECIFIC GRAVITY 1.0VARIABLE SPEED OPERATION
8/10/99
1060
 1 
 
4 
 

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