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Coagulation and Disinfection Manual

Coagulation and Disinfection Manual

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Published by Oxfam
This manual is part of a series of guides devised by the Oxfam Public Health Engineering Team to help provide a reliable water supply for populations affected by conflict or natural disaster. The equipment is designed to be used with any or all of the following Oxfam water equipment: Water Pumping equipment, Water Storage equipment, Water Filtration equipment, Water Distribution equipment, Hand-dug Well equipment, and Water Testing Kit. All are designed using available, easily transported equipment which is simple, rapidly assembled, and fully self-contained, to provide an adequate, safe water supply at moderate cost. The principles used in these packages may often be useful in long-term development projects.
This manual is part of a series of guides devised by the Oxfam Public Health Engineering Team to help provide a reliable water supply for populations affected by conflict or natural disaster. The equipment is designed to be used with any or all of the following Oxfam water equipment: Water Pumping equipment, Water Storage equipment, Water Filtration equipment, Water Distribution equipment, Hand-dug Well equipment, and Water Testing Kit. All are designed using available, easily transported equipment which is simple, rapidly assembled, and fully self-contained, to provide an adequate, safe water supply at moderate cost. The principles used in these packages may often be useful in long-term development projects.

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Published by: Oxfam on Apr 12, 2011
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1
Oxfam Water Supply Scheme for Emergencies
This equipment is part of several packages devised by the Oxfam Public Health Engineering Team tohelp provide a reliable water supply for populations affected by conflict or natural disaster. Theequipment is designed to be used with any or all of the following Oxfam water equipment: WaterPumping equipment, Water Storage equipment, Water Filtration equipment, Water Distributionequipment, Hand-dug Well equipment, and Water Testing Kit. All are designed using available, easilytransported equipment which is simple, rapidly assembled, and fully self-contained, to provide anadequate, safe water supply at moderate cost. The principles used in these packages may often beuseful in long-term development projects.The Oxfam equipment packages which consist of Oxfam tanks (steel sheets, rubber liners), dieselwater pumps, 3” PVC pipes etc, have been used successfully in the last two decades in often harshenvironments, ranging from tropical to temperate climatic areas. Although this equipment is designedfor emergencies, if installed and protected adequately it can give many years of useful service,though some up-grading works will be necessary to prolong its life. This equipment can bedismantled and re-used elsewhere.However, these Oxfam equipment packages, while being simple to erect over a period of days, yetdurable enough to last several years, do not lend themselves to very rapid deployment in a fewhours. Increasingly, the nature of work which Oxfam has been required to undertake, has requiredequipment that can rapidly deployed, then dismantled and moved to other locations and this has ledto the development of the so called “rapid response kits” since the mid 1990s. This type of equipmentis seen as a necessary complement to the original Oxfam equipment and is best used to provide astart up package in the absence of a detailed assessment and where affected populations are likelyto be highly mobile. The relatively higher equipment costs and lack of suitability for anything otherthan short term water supply, means that the deployment of the “rapid response kits” should be usedonly where appropriate.
Read this manual through before starting installation.
Contents
SECTION A - EQUIPMENT USE AND SYSTEM DESIGN 2
Coagulation 2Disinfection 4
SECTION B LIST OF KITS AND INSTRUCTIONS FOR USE 6
Coagulation and disinfection kits 6Coagulation 7Sedimentation - upflow clarifier 8Disinfection 13
SECTION C - OPERATIONAL INFORMATION 15
Coagulation and flocculation 15Chlorination 19
SECTION D DETAILS OF KITS AND SUPPLIERS 22
Full list of kit contents 22List of suppliers 25
 
 
2
 SECTION A - EQUIPMENT USE AND SYSTEM DESIGN
Wherever possible, water supplies in emergencyconditions should be obtained from undergroundsources, by exploitation of springs, tubewells, ordug wells; as treatment requirements areminimal, because water from these sources isusually low in physical and microbiologicalcontamination. However, in an emergency, sucha source may not be available or it may take along time to develop and the use of surfacewater from streams, rivers, lakes, or ponds maybecome necessary. Usually these surfacesources are polluted with both physical andmicrobiological contamination.The use of chemicals to assist in treatment ofwater is often necessary where water needs to beprovided from these contaminated surface watersources, particularly in the early stages of anemergency. While the use of the roughing andslow sand filtration (see Oxfam filtration equipmentmanual), should be considered for postemergency situations as these treatment methodsare more sustainable and appropriate, therelatively speed and efficiency of using chemicaltreatment methods justifies their use during theearly stages of an emergency response. Theprinciples of using chemicals for water treatmentapply to both household level (small scale) andtreatment plant level (bulk centralised production),but the equipment and methodologies discussedin this manual apply primarily to bulk watertreatment.SPHERE recommends maintaining a chlorineresidual of 0.2-0.5 mg per litre and turbiditybelow 5. Where water is not disinfected, thereshould be no more than 10 faecalcoliforms/100ml at point of water delivery. Therecommended figure of 15 litres / person / day isused for water supply and this figure is basedupon; water requirements for food preparationand consumption, which require higher qualitywater, as well as water needed for clotheswashing and bathing. Where nearby sources ofwater such as streams and rivers are availableand the safe use of these for washing clothesand bathing can be managed, it may beappropriate and necessary to initially size thetreatment system on a figure of 10l / person / day. This would provide the water required forfood preparation and drinking, i.e. a minimum of5 litres/person/day and additional water to allowfor subsequent increased demand, perhaps dueto population expansion.Oxfam uses two basic types/stages of treatmentprocess for treatment of physically andmicrobiologically contaminated (surface) water:
1.
Water (surface) with high physicalcontamination, i.e. suspended solids (which oftenhas high microbiological contamination too),needs to be treated using plain sedimentation ora combination of coagulation and flocculationfollowed by (assisted) sedimentation. Thus theprimary role of this stage of treatment is toreduce physical contamination – though it doesalso have a limited ability to reducemicrobiological contamination.
2.
Water (surface) with low physicalcontamination but with high microbiologicalcontamination can be treated by disinfectiononly. Thus the primary function of disinfection isto eliminate microbiological contamination – there is little scope for efficient disinfection withchlorine where there are high levels of physicalcontamination (<5NTU).Note: physical contamination is due tosuspended solids - approximate estimates ofwhich are made by measuring turbidity (NTU).
Coagulation
Coagulation with aluminiumsulphate
Where high levels of suspended solids exist in thewater, reduction of these is necessary in order tobe able to disinfect effectively with chlorine and foraesthetic (looks/taste) reasons. Plainsedimentation of solids suspended in water isoften slow, but is readily assisted by addition of acoagulant, which causes the solid particles toaggregate (stick) together and so to form largermasses, which settle more rapidly. Whileeffective intake design and plain sedimentationcan remove larger particles, colloidal (very fine)matter and organic material such as algae, is oftendifficult to remove without use of a coagulant.The coagulant most commonly used by Oxfam isaluminum sulphate powder (Oxfam code FAS),which though not a very strong coagulant, doeshave the advantage that it can be air freightedeasily and is quite commonly available in differentparts of the world. However, it does have quite anarrow pH range, operating best between pH 6.5
 
 
3and 7.5 and outside these limits its efficiency goesdown and hence more has to be used tocompensate. This occurs as the solubility ofaluminium precipitate increases dramaticallyoutside this range, which means that where pH istoo high or too low, a floc precipitate will be unableto form easily.As the addition of (acidic) aluminium sulphate towater lowers the pH (by reacting with its naturalalkalinity), there is a risk that water pH may falloutside the optimum range. Where water hasinsufficient alkalinity or buffering capacity,additional alkali must be provided, usually by theaddition of Quick lime, as this will raise the pH ofthe water. As a guide, around 7 – 14kg of limeadded to 95m
3
of water will provide an appropriatelevel of pH adjustment, though clearly the actualamount should be determined as part of the jartests.Coagulants such as ferric chloride and ferricsulphate can be ordered and these operate in awider pH range, but are more hazardous, makingthem more difficult to transport by air and they areless commonly available. Coagulant aids can alsobe used where water is particularly difficult to treat,even by coagulation and Oxfam is investigatingthe use of these as a start up option in acuteemergencies to increase the effectiveness ofaluminum sulphate.Jar tests should be performed to determine thecorrect dose of coagulant to use. This willprobably be in the range between 25 - 150g/m
3
foraluminum sulphate, but will depend upon the rawwater to be treated. Details of how to undertake ajar test are given in Section C.There are three main stages in using a coagulantand these can be achieved in a variety of ways,choice being dependent upon equipment beingavailable and local circumstances;1. Dosing of coagulant2. Floc formation - flocculation3. Sedimentation
Dosing of aluminium sulphate
There are several options that Oxfam uses foraddition of aluminium sulphate (and some othercoagulants) to water;
1.
By suction side dosing, using the suction sidedosing kit (Oxfam code FASD). The coagulant issucked into the water stream by the pump andundergoes rapid mixing in the pump chamber.
2.
By use of a barrel erected at edge of, or in thetank to drip into inlet or outlet flow. Either a 200litre-oil drum could be used or the equipment inthe constant head dosing kit (Oxfam code FCCD).
3.
By use of a precise chemical dosing pump(Oxfam code FDO), which is powered simply by asmall hydraulic head (minimum of 1m). Thoughthese have been thoroughly tested and aspecification prepared for them (see section D),they are not stocked and this manual does notdeal with them in any further detail.
Flocculation
Once the coagulant has been added (dosed) tothe water supply, the right conditions need to becreated to enhance the process of floc formation.Typically after a period of rapid mixing/injectioninto the water stream (as achieved with suctionside dosing where water is churned through thepump chamber), the water/coagulant mix shouldbe gently stirred to permit the smaller flocs tocome together. Care must be taken not to havethe flocs broken up by too strong mixing.Oxfam uses two basic methods for achieving this;1. The use of a coiled pipe floculator, especiallyin conjunction with suction side dosing, ismuch more efficient way of achieving goodflocculation and has been recently introducedto Oxfam.2. Attaching a 2/3m length of hose onto acoagulant/flocculent tank inlet and fixing thisalong the circumference of the tank to create acircular stirring motion within the tank duringthe time in which water is being pumped/fedinto the tank. This method is the traditionalpractice but it is less efficient than the coiledpipe floculator.
Sedimentation (coagulant assisted)
Once the coagulant has been introduced into thewater and flocs are starting to form, a period oftime is required for these to settle out of the waterand form a sediment at the bottom of the tank,enabling clean water to be removed from the clearwater above this. The use of specially designedsedimentation tanks complete with special inlet,outlet arrangements and other features, doesincrease the efficiency of sedimentation and allowsa much greater level of process control. HoweverOxfam or onion tanks can be used to provide avery basic sedimentation tank which will achieve

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