3and 7.5 and outside these limits its efficiency goesdown and hence more has to be used tocompensate. This occurs as the solubility ofaluminium precipitate increases dramaticallyoutside this range, which means that where pH istoo high or too low, a floc precipitate will be unableto form easily.As the addition of (acidic) aluminium sulphate towater lowers the pH (by reacting with its naturalalkalinity), there is a risk that water pH may falloutside the optimum range. Where water hasinsufficient alkalinity or buffering capacity,additional alkali must be provided, usually by theaddition of Quick lime, as this will raise the pH ofthe water. As a guide, around 7 – 14kg of limeadded to 95m
of water will provide an appropriatelevel of pH adjustment, though clearly the actualamount should be determined as part of the jartests.Coagulants such as ferric chloride and ferricsulphate can be ordered and these operate in awider pH range, but are more hazardous, makingthem more difficult to transport by air and they areless commonly available. Coagulant aids can alsobe used where water is particularly difficult to treat,even by coagulation and Oxfam is investigatingthe use of these as a start up option in acuteemergencies to increase the effectiveness ofaluminum sulphate.Jar tests should be performed to determine thecorrect dose of coagulant to use. This willprobably be in the range between 25 - 150g/m
foraluminum sulphate, but will depend upon the rawwater to be treated. Details of how to undertake ajar test are given in Section C.There are three main stages in using a coagulantand these can be achieved in a variety of ways,choice being dependent upon equipment beingavailable and local circumstances;1. Dosing of coagulant2. Floc formation - flocculation3. Sedimentation
Dosing of aluminium sulphate
There are several options that Oxfam uses foraddition of aluminium sulphate (and some othercoagulants) to water;
By suction side dosing, using the suction sidedosing kit (Oxfam code FASD). The coagulant issucked into the water stream by the pump andundergoes rapid mixing in the pump chamber.
By use of a barrel erected at edge of, or in thetank to drip into inlet or outlet flow. Either a 200litre-oil drum could be used or the equipment inthe constant head dosing kit (Oxfam code FCCD).
By use of a precise chemical dosing pump(Oxfam code FDO), which is powered simply by asmall hydraulic head (minimum of 1m). Thoughthese have been thoroughly tested and aspecification prepared for them (see section D),they are not stocked and this manual does notdeal with them in any further detail.
Once the coagulant has been added (dosed) tothe water supply, the right conditions need to becreated to enhance the process of floc formation.Typically after a period of rapid mixing/injectioninto the water stream (as achieved with suctionside dosing where water is churned through thepump chamber), the water/coagulant mix shouldbe gently stirred to permit the smaller flocs tocome together. Care must be taken not to havethe flocs broken up by too strong mixing.Oxfam uses two basic methods for achieving this;1. The use of a coiled pipe floculator, especiallyin conjunction with suction side dosing, ismuch more efficient way of achieving goodflocculation and has been recently introducedto Oxfam.2. Attaching a 2/3m length of hose onto acoagulant/flocculent tank inlet and fixing thisalong the circumference of the tank to create acircular stirring motion within the tank duringthe time in which water is being pumped/fedinto the tank. This method is the traditionalpractice but it is less efficient than the coiledpipe floculator.
Sedimentation (coagulant assisted)
Once the coagulant has been introduced into thewater and flocs are starting to form, a period oftime is required for these to settle out of the waterand form a sediment at the bottom of the tank,enabling clean water to be removed from the clearwater above this. The use of specially designedsedimentation tanks complete with special inlet,outlet arrangements and other features, doesincrease the efficiency of sedimentation and allowsa much greater level of process control. HoweverOxfam or onion tanks can be used to provide avery basic sedimentation tank which will achieve