PhiloSoPhieS anD StrategieS of PervaSive larP DeSign
Pervasive games are games that break the usual boundaries o games. While regular games are played at a set place and time by certain volunteer participants, pervasive games are dierent: Tesegames are either played out in the open, or they invade players’everyday lives, or they can involve outsiders and bystanders. In ourearlier work (Montola, Waern & Nieuwdorp 006) we have deneda pervasive game as a “game that has one or more salient eaturesthat expand the contractual magic circle o play socially, spatially ortemporally”.Tis blurring o the traditional boundaries o games usually leads to the point where players are unaware o where the game endsand ordinary lie begins; they oten are unsure about whether a cer-tain object, place or person is related to the game. While this isoten a source o pleasurable gameplay, it can also occasionally be acause o signicant problems in the game.1 Numerous larps and other games have inuenced this paper.As these games are generally poorly documented and mostly exist inoral tradition, we have not provided reerences to exact larps.2Tispaper is based on a report originally produced in the IPerG project(Montola, Stenros & Waern 007).
Ps p ds psps
Larps can be designed in order to meet a number o goals and pur-poses. In order to inorm design, we rst need to create a rudimen-tary classication o larp design philosophies: Tese philosophies areholistic approaches to larp organization, addressing both the ormand the unction o the game. While the vast majority o larps areconceived or recreation and entertainment, other uses include edu-cation, simulation and artistic expression. Tese unctions can beurther analyzed: Recreational larps, or instance, can produce plea-
For a reader unaware o our viewson pervasive games in general, werecommend having a look at ourwork discussing pervasive games ingeneral (Montola, Stenros & Waernorthcoming, Montola 2005, Montola,Waern & Nieuwdorp 2006), the ethicso pervasive games (Montola, Waern,Kuittinen & Stenros 2006) and pervasivegames in a larger cultural context(Stenros, Montola & Mäyrä 2007).
We have used the ollowing pervasivelarps as background inormation:
Isle of Saints
Prosopopeia Bardo 1: Där vi föll
Prosopopeia Bardo2: Momentum
(Denmark 2007) and
Tre grader av uskyld
(Denmark 2006). Many non-pervasive larps also provided insightor this report. These include
En stilla middag
Mellan himmeloch hav
System Danmarc 2
The Executive Game
–series (Finland2001-2003). In addition, many pervasivegames and research prototypes haveinuenced our work:
Uncle Roy AllAround You
by way o example.