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Mathematics 11

# Mathematics 11

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This book is meant for the students studying in schools which follows CBSE or similar curriculum. It can also be referred for General Studies paper of UPSC's Civil Services Exam. All rights are reserved by the publisher i.e. NCERT. The contents of the book has been downloaded from the site: http://www.ncert.nic.in/index.html.
This book is meant for the students studying in schools which follows CBSE or similar curriculum. It can also be referred for General Studies paper of UPSC's Civil Services Exam. All rights are reserved by the publisher i.e. NCERT. The contents of the book has been downloaded from the site: http://www.ncert.nic.in/index.html.

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06/01/2013

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Contents
Foreword iii
1. Sets 1
1.1 Introduction 11.2 Sets and their Representations 11.3 The Empty Set 51.4 Finite and Infinite Sets 61.5 Equal Sets 71.6 Subsets 91.7 Power Set 121.8 Universal Set 121.9 Venn Diagrams 131.10 Operations on Sets 141.11 Complement of a Set 181.12 Practical Problems on Union and Intersection of Two Sets 21
2. Relations and Functions 30
2.1 Introduction 302.2 Cartesian Product of Sets 302.3 Relations 342.4 Functions 36
3. Trigonometric Functions 49
3.1 Introduction 493.2 Angles 493.3 Trigonometric Functions 553.4 Trigonometric Functions of Sum and Difference of Two Angles 633.5 Trigonometric Equations 74
4. Principle of Mathematical Induction 86
4.1 Introduction 864.2 Motivation 874.3 The Principle of Mathematical Induction 88

viii
5. Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations 97
5.1 Introduction 975.2 Complex Numbers 975.3 Algebra of Complex Numbers 985.4 The Modulus and the Conjugate of a Complex Number 1025.5 Argand Plane and Polar Representation 1045.6 Quadratic Equations 108
6. Linear Inequalities 116
6.1 Introduction 1166.2 Inequalities 1166.3 Algebraic Solutions of Linear Inequalities in One Variableand their Graphical Representation 1186.4 Graphical Solution of Linear Inequalities in Two Variables 1236.5 Solution of System of Linear Inequalities in Two Variables 127
7. Permutations and Combinations 134
7.1 Introduction 1347.2 Fundamental Principle of Counting 1347.3 Permutations 1387.4 Combinations 148
8. Binomial Theorem 160
8.1 Introduction 1608.2 Binomial Theorem for Positive Integral Indices 1608.3 General and Middle Terms 167
9. Sequences and Series 177
9.1 Introduction 1779.2 Sequences 1779.3 Series 1799.4 Arithmetic Progression (A.P.) 1819.5 Geometric Progression (G.P.) 1869.6 Relationship Between A.M. and G.M. 1919.7 Sum to
n
terms of Special Series 194
10. Straight Lines 203
10.1 Introduction 20310.2 Slope of a Line 20410.3 Various Forms of the Equation of a Line 21210.4 General Equation of a Line 22010.5 Distance of a Point From a Line 225

ix
11. Conic Sections 236
11.1 Introduction 23611.2 Sections of a Cone 23611.3 Circle 23911.4 Parabola 24211.5 Ellipse 24711.6 Hyperbola 255
12. Introduction to Three Dimensional Geometry 268
12.1 Introduction 26812.2 Coordinate Axes and Coordinate Planes inThree Dimensional Space 26912.3 Coordinates of a Point in Space 26912.4 Distance between Two Points 27112.5 Section Formula 273
13. Limits and Derivatives 281
13.1 Introduction 28113.2 Intuitive Idea of Derivatives 28113.3 Limits 28413.4 Limits of Trigonometric Functions 29813.5 Derivatives 303
14. Mathematical Reasoning 321
14.1 Introduction 32114.2 Statements 32114.3 New Statements from Old 32414.4 Special Words/Phrases 32914.5 Implications 33514.6 Validating Statements 339
15. Statistics 347
15.1 Introduction 34715.2 Measures of Dispersion 34915.3 Range 34915.4 Mean Deviation 34915.5 Variance and Standard Deviation 36115.6 Analysis of Frequency Distributions 372

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