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Basic Gunnery

Basic Gunnery

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Categories:Types, Research, Science
Published by: GlassyDarkGrayStylus on Apr 13, 2011
Copyright:Traditional Copyright: All rights reserved

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11/05/2011

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This is a test release. It is a partial release of basic gunnery portion of "Combat with firearms" manuscript by"GlassyDarkGrayStylus" The document is incomplete.1. Basic Gunnery.The purpose of gunnery is to hit a target with a projectile.Gunnery process defined:A gunnery process is a process of using a gun to hit a target. It starts after a shooter makes a decision to shoot atarget. The order of the process starts with moving a gun into aiming position, followed by aiming, firing,evaluating the effect of the gunnery. The shooter will usually go back to the stage of moving the gun back toaiming position and stop the process at aiming stage while doing the effect assessment, and resume the cyclefrom there if the shooter determines that firing another shot is necessary. If the shooter determines it is notnecessary to fire another shot, the process will end. Although firing occurs after aiming stage, aiming and firing isa concurrent tasking.1.1. AimingTo hit a target, the gun has to be directed toward a certain direction and set in a certain attitude at the moment of firing. Aiming is to set the firearm within a certain range of that direction and attitude.1.1.1. Instrument aided aiming.-Terms defined:Intended Aim Point(IAP): The area on the target a shooter intends to make a projectile impact on.Probable impact area (PIA): Estimated area where fired projectile will impact in.Sight: Visual aiming device that provides a reference point for the shooter to determine how the firearmis oriented in relation to a target.Sight index point (SIP): Where the reference point of the sight indicates.Sight reference line(SRL): The imaginary line the SIP is on, extending from the sight.Sight reference point(SRP): The point in an aiming device where SRL crosses.Sight Aim Point(SAP): This is the point where SIP should index in order to put PIA on IAP.An instrument that gives shooters indications of direction and attitude of the gun by visual reference is called asight.Use of sights to aim needs understanding of the following problems.SRL is a straight line, but a path of a projectile fired within earth gravity influence will be an arc. Also, the windwould influence projectiles’ flight path. Also, sights will be installed with the SRL having an offset distance to thebore because sights cannot be installed along the path of the bore.The sights are usually placed over the barrel with SRL being parallel to the projectile’s trajectory on a horizontalplane. This will simplify the SRL offset issue by putting the trajectory and the SRL on the same vertical plane andkeep difference between the SIP and projectile trajectory on horizontal plane minimal with no side wind.Vertical path wise, the trajectory of the projectile cannot be parallel with SRL because it will always be an arc.To counter this problem. Following methods are employed. Most firearms are designed so that the offsetdistance of the sight from bore line is no more than necessary. Guns are usually designed in a matter that thebarrel is positioned with the bore line intersecting the SRL, so that the projectile will intersect the SRL at somepoint. That is done in a manner that the SRL can be adjusted to make the arc line of the trajectory as close toSRL at the range that the firearm is expected to be used.
 
All this requires the shooter to know where the SIP indexes in relation to where the IAP is in a given distance.The gunner projects SIP on SAP, to bring PIA on IAP.The gunner needs to track SAP with SIP until the gun fires. SIP and IAP may or may not be stationary, andbecause of the gunner and the gun's limitation in stability, the tracking effort that involves continuous error correction and stabilization needs to be continuously executed until the gun is fired. This is aim tracking.
 
Setting the sight to set SRL in the desired relationship with the trajectory is usually done by making the SRLintersect with the bullet trajectory at a certain distance. That process is called “zeroing”, and the certain distancewhere the SRL is set to meet the trajectory is the range the gun is “zeroed” to.The trajectory will intersect with the SRL usually two times, first time when the bullet travels upward and secondtime when it travels downward. Where it intersects at the second time, which is more far, will be the distance thegun is zeroed to.

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