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Table Of Contents

1 RIGS AND THEIR EQUIPMENT
1.1 Rotary Drilling Rigs
1.1.1 Land Rigs
1.1.2 Offshore drilling vessels
Barges
Jack-Up Rigs
Semi-Submersible Rigs
Drillships
Platforms
1.1.3 Land Rig Examples
1.1.4 Jack Up Example
1.1.5 Semi-Submersible Example
2 ROTARY RIG COMPONENTS
2.1 The Hoisting System
2.1.1 Providing Rotation to the Drillstring and Bit
Kelly and Swivel
Top Drive Units
2.1.2 Lifting Equipment
Bails and Elevators
Slips
Tongs
Power Tongs and Pipe Spinners
Chain Wrench
2.2 The Circulating System
2.2.1 Solids Control Equipment
2.3 Drill Bit and Drillstring
2.3.1 Drag Bits
2.3.2 Roller Tri-Cone Bits
Bit Terminology
IADC Bit Classification
Cone Action
Bearing Types
Operating requirements
2.3.3 Diamond and Polycrystalline Diamond Compact (PDC) bits
2.3.4 Grading Of Bits
The IADC bit grading system
2.3.6 The Drillstring
2.3.7 Drillpipe
2.3.8 Drill Collars
2.3.9 The Bottom Hole Assembly (BHA)
Stabilizers
Reamers
Hole Opener
Cross Over Sub
Jars
Shock Sub
2.4 Blow Out Prevention System
2.4.1 BOP Stack
2.4.2 Closing the well
Annular Preventer
Ram Type Preventers
2.4.3 Closing the preventers
Accumulators
Control Panel
Positioning of the rams
Kill Lines
The Diverter
2.4.4 Inside Blowout Preventers
Surface Shut Off Valves
Downhole Check Valves
2.4.5 Rotating BOPs
3.2.2 Foam or Aerated Fluids
3.2.3 Water-Base Muds
3.2.4 Oil-Emulsion Muds
3.2.5 Oil-Base Muds
3.3 Basic Mud Rheology
3.3.1 Mud Density
3.3.2 Mud Viscosity
3.3.3 Gel Strength
3.3.4 High vs. Low Viscosity and Gel Strength
3.3.5 Filtrate/Fluid Loss
3.3.6 Filter Cake
3.3.7 Mud pH Level
3.3.8 Mud Salinity
4.2.3 Intermediate Hole
4.2.4 Total Depth
4.3 Drilling and Making Hole
4.3.1 Pipe Tally
4.3.2 Drill Breaks and Flow Checks
4.3.3 Reaming
4.3.4 Circulating
4.4 Coring
4.4.1 Purpose
4.4.2 Coring Methods
4.4.3 Core Barrel Assembly
4.4.4 Retrieval and Handling Operations
4.5 Tripping
4.5.1 Trip Speed
4.5.2 Pulling Out of Hole
4.5.3 Swabbing
4.5.4 Running In Hole
4.5.5 Monitoring Displacements
4.5.6 Hook Load
4.5.7 Strapping and Rabbiting the Pipe
4.6 Electrical Logging
4.6.1 Formation Evaluation
4.6.2 Hole Condition
4.7 Casing and Cementing
4.7.1 Purpose
4.7.2 Types of Casing
4.7.3 Surface Equipment
4.7.4 Subsurface Equipment
4.7.5 Preparing to Run Casing
4.7.6 Running Casing
4.7.7 Cementing Operation
4.7.8 Other Applications
4.8 Pressure Tests
4.8.1 Leak-Off and Formation Integrity Tests
4.8.2 Repeat Formation Testing
4.8.3 Drill Stem Testing
Performing a Drill Stem Test
5 DEVIATION CONTROL
5.1 Common Causes of Deviation
5.1.1 Interbedded Lithology / Drillability
5.1.2 Formation Dip
5.1.3 Faults
5.1.4 Poor Drilling Practices
5.2 Problems Associated with Deviation
5.2.1 Doglegs and Keyseats
5.2.2 Ledges
5.2.3 Stuck Pipe
5.2.4 Increased Torque/Drag and Drill Pipe Fatigue
5.2.5 Casing and Cementing
5.3 Prevention of Deviation
5.3.1 Pendulum Effect
5.3.2 Pendulum Assembly
5.3.3 Packed-Hole Assembly
5.3.4 Packed Pendulum Assembly
5.3.5 Stabilizers and Reamers
5.3.6 Drilling Procedures
6 DIRECTIONAL AND HORIZONTAL DRILLING
6.1 Reasons for Directional Drilling
6.2 Surveys/Calculations
6.2.1 Survey Methods
Single-Shot Surveys
Multi-Shot Surveys
Gyroscopic Surveys
Measurement While Drilling (MWD)
6.2.2 Survey Measurements
6.2.3 Survey Calculation Methods
Radius of Curvature
Minimum Curvature
6.2.4 Directional Drilling Terminology
6.3 Drilling Techniques
6.3.1 Well Profiles
Shallow Deflection Profile
S-Curve Profile
Deep Deflection Profile
6.3.2 Drilling Stages
6.3.3 Whipstocks, Motors and Techniques
Whipstocks
Downhole Motors and Bent Subs
Rotating and Sliding
Jetting
6.4 Horizontal Drilling
6.4.1 Classification
6.4.2 Horizontal Drilling Considerations
Radius Effects
Reversed Drill String Design
Drill Pipe Fatigue
Hole Cleaning
Use of Top Drives
Casing and Cementing
Formation Considerations
Formation Evaluation
Gas Behaviour/Well Control
7 DRILLING PROBLEMS
7.1 Formation Problems and Hole Stability
7.1.1 Fractures
Associated Problems
Drilling Fractured Formations
7.1.2 Shales
Reactive Shales
Overpressured Shales
7.1.3 Surface Formations
7.1.4 Salt Sections
7.1.5 Coal Beds
7.1.6 Anhydrite/Gypsum Formations
7.2 Lost Circulation
7.2.1 Occurrences
7.2.2 Detection
7.2.3 Problems
7.2.4 Prevention
7.2.5 Remedies
7.3 Kicks and Blowouts
7.3.1 Causes Of Kicks
7.3.2 Kick Warning Signs
7.3.3 Indications Of Kicks While Drilling
7.3.4 Indicators While Tripping
7.3.5 Flowchecks
7.4 Stuck Pipe
• Hole pack-off or bridge
7.4.1 Hole Pack-Off or Bridge
Sloughing or Caving of Reactive or Pressured Shales
Fractured or Unconsolidated Formations
Settling Cuttings and Cuttings Beds
Cement or Junk
Mobile Salt
7.4.2 Differential Sticking
7.4.3 Wellbore Geometry
7.4.4 Rotary Drilling Jars
Hydraulic Jars
Mechanical Jars
Jar Accelerator
7.4.5 Fish – Cause and Indication
7.4.6 Fishing Equipment
Junk Basket
Fishing Magnet
Impression Block
Milling Tools
Overshots
Spears
Washover Pipe
Free-Point Indicator
Jars and Accelerators
Safety Joints and Bumper Subs
7.5 Drill String Vibrations
7.5.1 Torsional Vibration
7.5.2 Axial Vibration
7.5.3 Lateral Vibration
7.6 Washouts
7.6.1 Drill String Washouts
7.6.2 Hole Washouts
8 UNDERBALANCED DRILLING
8.1 Benefits and Limitations of Underbalanced Drilling
8.2 Underbalanced Drilling Fluids
8.2.1 Gas & Air Drilling
Advantages and Disadvantages
Equipment
Drilling Operations
Drilling Problems
8.2.2 Mist
8.2.3 Foam
8.2.4 Aerated Mud
8.2.5 Mud
8.3 Equipment and Procedures
8.3.1 Rotating Heads
8.3.2 Closed Circulating and Separating Systems
8.3.3 Blooie Line and Sample Catcher
8.3.4 Gas Measurement
8.4 Coiled Tubing Units
8.4.1 Components
8.4.2 Drilling Applications
8.4.3 Advantages and Disadvantages
9 ROCKS AND RESERVOIRS
9.1 Introductory Petrology
9.1.1 Igneous
9.1.2 Metamorphic
9.1.3 Sedimentary
Sediment Classification
Compaction and Cementation
Clastic Rock Types
Chemical and Organic Rock Types
9.2 Petroleum Geology
9.2.1 Petroleum Generation
9.2.2 Maturation of Petroleum
9.2.3 Petroleum Migration
9.2.4 Primary Migration
9.2.5 Secondary Migration
9.2.6 Hydrocarbon Traps
Stratigraphic Traps
Structural Traps
9.3 Petroleum Composition
9.3.1 Saturated Hydrocarbons or Alkanes
Paraffin
Naphthenes
9.3.2 Unsaturated Hydrocarbons or Aromatics
9.3.3 API Gravity Classification
9.4 Reservoir Characteristics
9.4.1 Porosity
Sandstones
Limestones
9.4.2 Permeability
9.4.3 Water Saturation
9.4.4 Reservoir Zones, Contacts and Terminology
10 MUD LOGGING - INSTRUMENTATION AND INTERPRETATION
10.1 Depth and Rate of Penetration
10.1.1 The Geolograph
10.1.2 Depth Wheel
10.1.3 Crown Sheave
10.1.4 Drawworks Sensor
10.1.5 Heave Compensation
10.1.6 Rate of Penetration
Bit Selection
Rotary Speed (RPM)
Weight on Bit (WOB or FOB)
Differential Pressure
Hydraulics and Bottom Hole Cleaning
Bit Wear
Lithology
Depth
Formation Pressure
10.1.7 Drilling Breaks
10.1.8 Controlled Drilling
10.2 Hookload and Weight on Bit
10.2.1 Load or Pancake Cell
10.2.2 Strain Gauge
10.2.3 Weight on Bit
10.2.4 Hookload, Drag and Overpull
10.3.5 Torsional Vibrations
10.4 Pump or Standpipe Pressure
10.5 Annular or Casing Pressure
10.6 Pump Rate and Output
10.6.1 Pump Output Calculation
10.6.2 Lag Calculations
10.7 Flowrate and Pit Levels
11 MUDLOGGING PROCEDURES
11.1 Cuttings Descriptions
11.1.1 Rock Type and Classification
11.1.2 Color
11.1.3 Texture
Carbonate Rocks
Siliceous Rocks
Argillaceous Rocks
Carbonaceous Rocks
11.1.4 Cement and Matrix
11.1.5 Hardness
11.1.6 Fossils and Accessory Minerals
11.1.7 Sedimentary Structures
11.1.8 Porosity
11.1.9 Chemical Tests
HCl Effervescence
HCl Oil Reaction
Swelling
Sulphate Test – Gypsum and Anhydrite
Chloride Test
Alizarin Red
Cement Test
11.2 Oil Shows
11.2.1 Odour
11.2.2 Oil Staining and Bleeding
11.2.3 Fluorescence
Sample Preparation
Contaminants
Colour and Brightness
Fluorescence Distribution
Solvent Cut
Residue
Sampling the mud
11.2.4 Quantitative Fluorescence TechniqueTM
11.3 Cuttings Bulk Density
11.4 Shale Density
11.5 Shale Factor
11.6 Calcimetry
11.7 Enhanced Hole Monitoring
11.7.1 Consequences of poor stability / poor hole cleaning
11.7.2 Problems of Measuring Actual Cuttings Volume
Are all the cuttings being collected?
What about mud volume?
How accurate is the unit of measurement for a period of an hour?
11.7.3 Volume of Vessel
11.7.4 Measurement of Cuttings/Hour
11.7.5 Correction to Total Volume
11.7.6 Theoretical Cuttings Volume
11.7.7 Actual/Theoretical Cuttings Volume Ratio
11.7.8 Recording, Evaluating and Reporting
11.8 High Resolution Trip Monitoring
11.8.1 Theory and Benefits
11.8.2 Procedure
Theoretical Hookload
System and Data Preparation
11.8.3 Interpretation
11.8.4 Benefits to the Operator
11.9 DST Procedures
11.9.1 Water Cushion
11.9.2 Test String Components
11.9.3 Testing Procedures
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Wellsite procedure and operationo

Wellsite procedure and operationo

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Published by: Jeffrey on Apr 13, 2011
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