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Science 7

Science 7

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Published by Sanjeev Kumar
This book is meant for the students studying in schools which follows CBSE or similar curriculum. It can also be referred for General Studies paper of UPSC's Civil Services Exam. All rights are reserved by the publisher i.e. NCERT. The contents of the book has been downloaded from the site: http://www.ncert.nic.in/index.html.
This book is meant for the students studying in schools which follows CBSE or similar curriculum. It can also be referred for General Studies paper of UPSC's Civil Services Exam. All rights are reserved by the publisher i.e. NCERT. The contents of the book has been downloaded from the site: http://www.ncert.nic.in/index.html.

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Published by: Sanjeev Kumar on Apr 13, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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CK 
CONTENTSCONTENTSCONTENTSCONTENTSCONTENTS
FOREWORD FOREWORD FOREWORD FOREWORD FOREWORD iiiiiiiiiiPREFACE PREFACE PREFACE PREFACE PREFACE 
CCCCChapter hapter hapter hapter hapter 11111NNNNNutrition inutrition inutrition inutrition inutrition inPPPPPlantslantslantslantslants11111CCCCChapter hapter hapter hapter hapter 22222NNNNNutrition inutrition inutrition inutrition inutrition innimalsnimalsnimalsnimalsnimals1111111111CCCCChapter hapter hapter hapter hapter 33333ibre toibre toibre toibre toibre toabricabricabricabricabric2424242424CCCCChapter hapter hapter hapter hapter 44444HHHHHeaeaeaeaea3535353535CCCCChapter hapter hapter hapter hapter 55555cids,cids,cids,cids,cids,BBBBBases andases andases andases andases andSSSSSaltsaltsaltsaltsalts4949494949CCCCChapter hapter hapter hapter hapter 66666PPPPPhysical andhysical andhysical andhysical andhysical andCCCCChemicalhemicalhemicalhemicalhemicalCCCCChangeshangeshangeshangeshanges5858585858CCCCChapter hapter hapter hapter hapter 77777eather eather eather eather eather , C, C, C, C, Climate andlimate andlimate andlimate andlimate anddaptations of daptations of daptations of daptations of daptations of nimals tonimals tonimals tonimals tonimals toCCCCClimatelimatelimatelimatelimate6868686868CCCCChapter hapter hapter hapter hapter 88888indsindsindsindsinds, S, S, S, S, Storms andtorms andtorms andtorms andtorms andCCCCCyclonesyclonesyclonesyclonesyclones8080808080CCCCChapter hapter hapter hapter hapter 99999SSSSSoiloiloiloiloil9696969696CCCCChapter hapter hapter hapter hapter 1010101010espiration inespiration inespiration inespiration inespiration inOOOOOrganismsrganismsrganismsrganismsrganisms108108108108108CCCCChapter hapter hapter hapter hapter 1111111111ransportation inransportation inransportation inransportation inransportation innimals andnimals andnimals andnimals andnimals andPPPPPlantslantslantslantslants121121121121121CCCCChapter hapter hapter hapter hapter 1212121212eproduction ineproduction ineproduction ineproduction ineproduction inPPPPPlantslantslantslantslants133133133133133
 
CK 
CCCCChapter hapter hapter hapter hapter 1313131313MMMMMotionotionotionotionotionandandandandandimeimeimeimeime143143143143143CCCCChapter hapter hapter hapter hapter 1414141414EEEEElectriclectriclectriclectriclectricCCCCCurrent urrent urrent urrent urrent andandandandanditsitsitsitsitsEEEEEffectsffectsffectsffectsffects160160160160160CCCCChapter hapter hapter hapter hapter 1515151515ight ight ight ight ight 174174174174174CCCCChapter hapter hapter hapter hapter 1616161616ater ater ater ater ater : A P: A P: A P: A P: A Preciousreciousreciousreciousreciousesourceesourceesourceesourceesource193193193193193CCCCChapter hapter hapter hapter hapter 1717171717orestsorestsorestsorestsorests: O: O: O: O: Our ur ur ur ur ifelineifelineifelineifelineifeline206206206206206CCCCChapter hapter hapter hapter hapter 1818181818astewater astewater astewater astewater astewater SSSSStory tory tory tory tory 220220220220220
INDEX  INDEX  INDEX  INDEX  INDEX  
231231231231231
xiv 
 
Nutrition in PlantsNutrition in PlantsNutrition in PlantsNutrition in PlantsNutrition in Plants
11111
I
n Class VI you learnt that food isessential for all living organisms.You also learnt that carbohydrates,proteins, fats, vitamins and minerals arecomponents of food. These componentsof food are necessary for our body andare callednutrientsnutrientsnutrientsnutrientsnutrients.All living organisms require food.Plants can make their food themselvesbut animals including humans cannot.They get it from plants or animals that eat plants. Thus, humans and animalsare directly or indirectly dependent onplants.
1.1 M1.1 M1.1 M1.1 M1.1 M
ODEODEODEODEODE
 
OF OF OF OF OF 
NNNNN
UTRITIONUTRITIONUTRITIONUTRITIONUTRITION
 
INININININ
PPPPP
LANTSLANTSLANTSLANTSLANTS
Plants are the only organisms that canprepare food for themselves by usingwater, carbon dioxide and minerals. Theraw materials are present in their surroundings.The nutrients enable livingorganisms to build their bodies, to grow,to repair damaged parts of their bodiesand provide the energy to carry out lifeprocesses.NutritionNutritionNutritionNutritionNutrition is the mode of taking food by an organism and itsutilisation by the body. The mode of nutrition in which organisms make foodthemselves from simple substances iscalledautotrophicautotrophicautotrophicautotrophicautotrophic (auto = self; trophos= nourishment) nutrition. Therefore,plants are calledautotrophsautotrophsautotrophsautotrophsautotrophs. Animalsand most other organisms take in ready made food prepared by the plants. They are calledheterotrophsheterotrophsheterotrophsheterotrophsheterotrophs (heteros =other).Boojho wants to know how plants preparetheir own food.Now we may ask where the foodfactories of plants are located: whether food is made in all parts of a plant or only in certain parts? How do plantsobtain the raw materials from thesurroundings? How do they transport them to the food factories of the plants?
11111.2.2.2.2.2PPPPP
HOTOSYNTHESISHOTOSYNTHESISHOTOSYNTHESISHOTOSYNTHESISHOTOSYNTHESIS
— — — — — 
OODOODOODOODOOD
MMMMM
AKINGAKINGAKINGAKINGAKING
PPPPP
ROCESSROCESSROCESSROCESSROCESS
 
INININININ
PPPPP
LANTSLANTSLANTSLANTSLANTS
Leaves are the food factories of plants.The synthesis of food in plants occursin leaves. Therefore, all the raw materials must reach there. Water andminerals present in the soil are absorbedby the roots and transported to thePaheli wants to know why our body cannot make foodfrom carbon dioxide, water and minerals like plants do.

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