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SVT-Spé-Pondi-11

SVT-Spé-Pondi-11

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Published by: Letudiant.fr on Apr 13, 2011
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05/31/2011

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ENSEIGNEMENTDESPECIALITE
BACCALAUREATGENERAL
Session
2011
SCIENCESDELAVIEETDELATERRE
SerieS
Dureedel'epreuve:3heures30coefficient:8L'usagedelacalculatricen'estpasautorlse.DesqueIesujetvousestremis,assurez-vousqu'ilestcomplet.Cesujetcomporte6pages,nurneroteesde
1/6
a
6/6.
11SVTSIN1Page1sur6
 
PARTIEI(8
points)
RESTITUTIONORGANISEEDESCONNAISSANCES
Immunologie
Labacterie
Yersiniapestis,
decouverteen1894parIefrancaisAlexandreYersin,estresponsabledeplusieurspandemieshistoriquesdepestebubonique,dontlesrepercussionsdemoqraphiqueseteconorniquesonteteprofondesetdurables,commecefutIecaslarsdel'episodedelagrandepesteduMoyenAgeoupestenoire(de1346
a
1353),aucoursduquelonestimequeplusd'untiersdelapopulationtotaleeurcpeenneaetedecimee,soit
a
peupres25millionsdepersonnes.Lapestedemeureunemaladieinfectieusecontemporainequitoucheessentiellementl'Afriquesubsaharienne,l'Arneriqueetl'Asie.
Presentezsouslaformed'unschemalesdifferentesetapesdelareponsedusystemeimmunitairequi,depuissoninfectionjusqu'aI'eliminationdeI'agentpathogene,fontsuite
it
lacontaminationdeI'individuparlabacteriedelapeste.
Votreexposecomporterauneintroduction,Ieschemademandscontenantdeselementsd'explicationauniveaucellulaireetmoleculaireetuneconclusion.LeroledeslymphocytesTn'estpasattendu.
PARTIEII-Exercice1(3points)EXPLOITATIOND'UNDOCUMENTPOURRESOUDREUNPROBLEME
Stabilite,variabilitedesgenomesetevolution
Lamucoviscidosesecaracterisepardegravesproblernesrespiratoiresetdigestifspouvantconduire
a
lamort.Elleestliee
a
lapresenced'unallelemutedugenecodantlaproteineCFTR.Gettemaladieestlaplusfrequentsdesmaladieshereditairesautosorniquesrecessivesgravesdanslespopulationsd'origineeuropeenne.Elletoucheenmoyenneunnouveau-nesur2500.Avantladecouvertedetraitements,cettemaladieetaitmartelleavantI'agedelapuberteetonpeutsedemanderpourquoi,deslarsquecesindividusneprocreaientpas,l'alleleestencoreaussifrequentdansl'especehumaine.
A
partirdeI'analysedudocument,proposezunehypothesepourexpliquerlafrequencaimportantedel'allelemute
it
I'originedelamucoviscidosedanslapopulationeuropeenne,
11SVTSIN1
Page2sur6
 
PartieII-Exercice2(5points)
MISEENRELATIONDEDONNEESDOCUMENTAIRESETDECONNAISSANCESPOURRESOUDREUNPROBLEME
Dupassegeologique
a
l'evolutlonfuturedelaplanete
A
I'aidedesinformationsextraitesdesdocuments
1
a
3
etdevosconnaissances,proposezunehypothese
it
l'evolutiondesForamlnlferesentreIeMiocenetardif(-11
a
-5,3
millions
d'annees)
et
Ie
debutduPliocene
(-5,3
a
-3,4
millionsd'annees],
LaconnaissancedesfossilesetdeleurevolutionpermetderetracertoutoupartiedeI'histoiredelaTerre.Auseind'unordrecommeceluidesForaminiteres,I'observationdesmodificationsdutestpermetd'imaginerlesclimatsquireqnaientalors.
11SVTSIN1Page3
sur6

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