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Economic History of India - Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia

Economic History of India - Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia

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Published by manoj_mafiosi
Economics, india
Economics, india

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Published by: manoj_mafiosi on Apr 13, 2011
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History of South AsiaHistory of India
Stone Age before 3300 BCE- Mehrgarh Culture 70003300 BCEIndus Valley Civilization 3300–1700 BCE- Late Harappan Culture 1700–1300 BCE-- Ochre Coloured Pottery culture2nd millennium BCE-- Cemetery H culture From 1900 BCE-- Swat culture 1600500 BCE
Iron Age 1200180 BCE
Vedic Civilization 1500500 BCE-Black and Red ware culture 1300–1000 BCE-Painted Grey Ware culture 1200–600 BCE-Northern Black Polished Ware 700–200 BCEMaha Janapadas 700300 BCEMagadha Empire 684424 BCENanda Empire 424-321 BCEChera Empire 300 BCE1200 CEChola Empire 300 BCE1279 CEPandyan Empire 300 BCE1345 CEMaurya Empire 321184 BCEPallava Empire 250 BCE800 CESunga Empire 185-73 BCEKanva Empire 75-26 BCEKharavela Empire 209170 BCEKuninda Kingdom 200s BCE300s CEIndo-Scythian Kingdom 200 BC–400 CESatavahana Empire 230 BCE–220 CEIndo-Greek Kingdom 180 BCE–10 CE
Middle Kingdoms 1 CE–1279 CE
Indo-Parthian Kingdom 21–130s CEWestern Satrap Empire 35–405 CEKushan Empire 60240 CEIndo-Sassanid Kingdom 230–360 CEVakataka Empire 250500 CEKalabhras Kingdom 250600 CEGupta Empire 280550 CEKadamba Empire 345525 CEWestern Ganga Kingdom 350–1000 CEKamarupa Kingdom 3501100 CE
Economic history of India
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The known
Economic history of India
begins with theIndus Valley civilization. The Indus civilization'seconomy appears to have depended significantly ontrade, which was facilitated by advances in transport.Around 600 BC, the Mahajanapadas minted punch-marked silver coins. The period was marked byintensive trade activity and urban development. By 300BC the Maurya Empire united most of the Indiansubcontinent. The political unity and military securityallowed for a common economic system and enhancedtrade and commerce, with increased agriculturalproductivity.For the next 1500 years, India produced its classicalcivilizations such as the Rashtrakutas, Hoysalas andWestern Gangas. During this period India is estimatedto have had the largest economy of the ancient andmedieval world between the 1st and 15th centuries AD,controlling between one third and one fourth of theworld's wealth up to the time of the Marathas, fromwhence it rapidly declined during European rule.India has followed central planning for most of itsindependent history, which have included extensivepublic ownership, regulation, red tape, and tradebarriers.
After the 1991 economic crisis, thecentral government launched economic liberalization.India has turned towards a more capitalist system andhas emerged as one of the fastest growing largeeconomies of the world.
1 Indus Valley civilization2 Ancient and medieval characteristics2.1 Religion2.2 Family business2.3 Organizational entities2.4 Coinage2.5 Exports2.6 GDP estimate3 Maurya Empire4 Mughal Empire4.1 1526
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Vishnukundina Empire 420-624 CEHuna Kingdom 475-576 CERai Kingdom 489632 CEChalukya Empire 543753 CEHarsha Empire 590-647 CEShahi Kingdom 565-670 CEEastern Chalukya Kingdom 624-1075 CEGurjara Pratihara Empire 650–1036 CEPala Empire 7501174 CERashtrakuta Empire 753982 CEParamara Kingdom 8001327 CEYadava Empire 8501334 CESolanki Kingdom 9421244 CEWestern Chalukya Empire 973–1189 CEHoysala Empire 10401346 CESena Empire 10701230 CEEastern Ganga Empire 1078–1434 CEKakatiya Kingdom 10831323 CEKalachuri Empire 11301184 CE
Muslim Period 11001800 CE
Islamic Rulers 12061707 CE- Delhi Sultanate 1206–1526 CE- Deccan Sultanates 1490–1596 CEVijayanagara Empire 1336–1646 CEMughal Empire 15261803 CEMaratha Empire 16741818 CEDurrani Empire 17471823 CESikh Confederacy 1733–1805 CESikh Empire 17991849 CE
Regional Kingdoms 1100–1800 CE
Cochin Kingdom 11021949 CETravancore Kingdom 1102–1949 CEAhom Kingdom 12281826 CEChitradurga Kingdom 1300–1779 CEGarhwal Kingdom 13581803 CEMysore Kingdom 13991947 CEKeladi Kingdom 14991763 CEThondaiman Kingdom 1650–1948 CEMadurai Kingdom 15591736 CEThanjavur Kingdom 1572–1918 CEMarava Kingdom 16001750 CECompany rule in India 1757–1858 CE
4.2 16004.3 17005 Nawabs, Marathas and Nizams5.1 1725 - 17505.2 1750 - 17756 British rule6.1 GDP estimates6.2 The fall of the Rupee6.3 British East India Company rule6.3.1 Decline of the cotton textileindustry6.4 British Raj6.4.1 1850–18756.4.2 1875–19006.4.3 1900–19256.4.4 1925–19506.5 Economic impact of Britishimperialism7 Republic of India7.1 Nehruvian Socialist rate of growth7.2 Socialist reforms (1950-1975)7.3 1975 - 20007.4 2000 - present8 See also9 References10 Bibliography11 External links
Indus Valley civilization
The Indus Valley civilization, the first knownpermanent and predominantly urban settlement thatflourished between 2800 BC to 1800 BC boasted of anadvanced and thriving economic system. Its citizenspracticed agriculture, domesticated animals, madesharp tools and weapons from copper, bronze and tinand traded with other cities. Evidence of well laidstreets, layouts, drainage system and water supply inthe valley's major cities, Harappa, Lothal,Mohenjo-daro and Rakhigarhi reveals their knowledgeof urban planning. One of the theories about their end isthat they eventually overused their resources, andslowly died out. {{Citation needed|reason=please givea reliable source for this statement.|date=September 2009}
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British India 18581947 CEPartition of India 1947 CE
History of Sri LankaKingdoms of Sri Lanka
Kingdom of Tambapanni 543–505 BCEKingdom of Upatissa Nuwara 505–377 BCEKingdom of Anuradhapura 377–1017 CEKingdom of Ruhuna 200CEPolonnaruwa Kingdom 300–1310 CEKingdom of Dambadeniya 1220–1272 CEKingdom of Yapahuwa 1272–1293 CEKingdom of Kurunegala 1293–1341 CEKingdom of Gampola 1341–1347 CEKingdom of Raigama 1347–1415 CEKingdom of Kotte 1412–1597 CEKingdom of Sitawaka 1521–1594 CEKingdom of Kandy 1461–1581 CEPortuguese Ceylon 1505–1658 CEDutch Ceylon 16561796 CEBritish Ceylon 18151948 CE
Nation histories
Afghanistan • Bangladesh • Bhutan • IndiaMaldives • Nepal • Pakistan
Regional histories
Assam • Bihar • Balochistan • BengalHimachal Pradesh • Uttar PradeshPakistani Regions • Punjab • NWFPOrissa • Sindh • South India • Tibet
Specialised histories
Coinage • Dynasties •
Indology • Language • Literature • MaritimeMilitary • Science and Technology • Timeline
Ancient and medievalcharacteristics
Though ancient India had a significant urbanpopulation, much of India's population resided invillages, whose economy was largely isolated andself-sustaining. Agriculture was the predominantoccupation of the populace and satisfied a village's foodrequirements besides providing raw materials for handbased industries like textile, food processing and crafts.Besides farmers, other classes of people were barbers,carpenters, doctors (Ayurvedic practitioners),goldsmiths, weavers etc.
citation needed 
Religion, especially Hinduism, played an influential rolein shaping economic activities. The Indian caste systemcastes and sub-castes functioned much like medievalEuropean guilds, ensuring division of labour andprovided for training of apprentices. The caste systemrestricted people from changing one's occupation andaspiring to an upper caste's lifestyle. Thus, a barber could not become a goldsmith and even a highly skilledcarpenter could not aspire to the lifestyle or privilegesenjoyed by a Kshatriya (person from a warrior class).This barrier to mobility on labour restricted economicprosperity to a few castes.
citation needed 
Pilgrimage towns like Allahabad, Benares, Nasik andPuri, mostly centred around rivers, developed intocentres of trade and commerce. Religious functions,festivals and the practice of taking a pilgrimage resultedin a flourishing
pilgrimage economy
citation needed 
Family business
In the joint family system, members of a family pooled their resources to maintain the family and invest inbusiness ventures. The system ensured younger members were trained and employed in the family business andthe older and disabled persons would be supported by the family. The system, by preventing the agricultural landfrom being split ensured higher yield because of the benefits of scale. The system curbed members from takinginitiative because of the support system and family or work.
citation needed 
Organizational entities
Along with the family-run business and individually owned business enterprises, ancient India possessed anumber of other forms of engaging in business or collective activity, including the gana, pani, puga, vrata,sangha, nigama and sreni. Nigama, pani and sreni refer most often to economic organizations of merchants,
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