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Table Of Contents

1.2.2 Linkage of IS to Business Objectives
1.4 Using IT for Competitive Advantage
1.6 The Role of the Analyst and Designer
Case Study: System Telecom
Case Study: LozCo Ltd
2.2 A Framework for Analysis and Design Methods
2.6 Structured Approaches
2.7 SSADM
2.8 Yourdon
2.9 Jackson
2.10 Merise
2.11 Rapid Application Development
2.11.1 Direct Systems Development Method (DSDM)
2.11.2 Principles of DSDM
2.12 Workflow Systems
2.13 Summary
Exercises
3 Communicating with People
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Types of Communication
3.3 Barriers to Communication
3.4 Improving Your Skills
3.4.1 Getting Information
3.4.2 Giving Information
3.4.3 Meetings
3.4.4 Presentations
3.5 Summary
4 Building Better Systems
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Quality Concepts
4.3 Quality Gurus
4.4 The Cost of Poor Quality
4.5 Quality Management
4.8.1 Inputs
4.8.2 Outputs
4.8.3 Evaluation
5 Project Management
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Stages of System Development
5.2.1 Before Analysis and Design
5.2.2 Analysis and Design
5.2.3 After Analysis and Design
5.3 Project Planning
5.3.1 Stages in Planning
5.5.1 The Control of Quality
5.5.2 Documentation Control
5.5.3 Change Control
5.5.4 Configuration Management
5.6 PRINCE2
5.7 Summary
6 Systems Analysis: Concepts
6.1 Introduction
6.2 What Is Systems Analysis?
6.3 Development Life Cycles
6.4 A Structured Approach
6.4.1 Structured Systems Analysis
6.5 The PARIS Model
6.6 Summary
7 Systems Analysis: Planning the Approach
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Objectives and Terms of Reference
7.3 Constraints
7.4 Preparing for Detailed Analysis
7.5 The Feasibility Study
7.6 Summary
Systems Analysis: Asking Questions and Collecting Data
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Fact-finding Interviews
8.2.1 Planning the Interview
8.2.2 Conducting the Interview
8.3 Questionnaires
8.4 Observation
8.5 Record Searching
8.6 Document Analysis
8.7 Summary
9 Systems Analysis: Recording the Information
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Data Dictionaries and CASE Tools
9.3 Data Flow Diagrams
9.3.1 DFD Components
9.3.2 DFD Hierarchies
9.4 Modelling Current Physical Processing
9.5 Entity Models
9.5.1 The Logical Data Structuring Technique
9.5.2 The Logical Data Model
9.6 Modelling Current Data
9.7 The Data Catalogue
9.8 Recording the Requirements
9.9 Summary
Case Study: The Shark Loan Company
Case Study: Ravenelli Ice Cream
10 Object-Oriented Methods
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Principles of OO
10.2.1 Inheritance
10.2.2 Encapsulation
10.2.3 Polymorphism
10.3 Object-Oriented Models
10.3.1 Use Case Diagrams
10.3.3 OO Behaviour Models
10.4 Summary
Systems Analysis: Modelling Systems Behaviour
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Creating a Logical Model of Current Processing
11.3 Modelling the Required System
11.4 Adding the Time Dimension
11.5 Modelling the Effects of System Events
11.6 Entity Life Histories
11.7 Producing Entity Life Histories
11.8 Effect Correspondence Diagrams
11.9 Producing Effect Correspondence Diagrams
11.10 Modelling Enquiries
11.11 Defining the User View of Processing
11.12 Modelling Input and Output Data
11.13 Modelling OO System Behaviour
11.14 Modelling Logic
11.15 Size and Frequency Statistics
11.16 Summary
Systems Analysis: Meeting Business Requirements
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Agreeing the Options
12.2.1 Identifying Options
12.2.2 Choosing Between the Options
12.2.3 The Use of Prototyping
12.2.4 Quantification of Options
12.3 Identifying Benefits
12.4 Presenting the Requirement
12.5 Writing the Functional Specification
12.6 Business Analysis
12.7 Business Activity Modelling
12.8 Business Analysis and IT Strategy
12.8.1 IT SWOT
12.8.2 Requirements Engineering
12.9 Strategic Information Systems
12.10 PESTEL Analysis
12.11 Summary
13 From Analysis to Design
13.1 Introduction
13.2 Bridging the Gap
13.3 Design Objectives and Constraints
13.3.1 Objectives
13.3.2 Constraints
13.4 Summary
14 Systems Design: Information Security
14.1 Introduction
14.2 Hacking and Viruses
14.3 The Purpose of Control
14.4 Input Controls
14.5 Output Controls
14.6 Processing Controls
14.7 Storage Controls
14.8 Audit Controls
14.9 Contingency Planning
14.10 Summary
15 Systems Design: Human– Computer Interaction
15.1 Introduction
15.2 Agreeing the System Boundary
15.3 Output Design
15.3.1 Output Technology
15.3.2 Displaying Information on a Screen
15.3.3 The Use of Tables and Graphics
15.3.4 Specifying Outputs
15.4 Input Design
15.4.1 Keyboard Transcription from Clerical Documents
15.4.3 Direct Entry through Intelligent Terminals
15.4.4 Input by Speech
15.5 Dialogue Design
15.5.1 Website Design
15.5.2 Dialogue Types
15.5.3 WIMP Interfaces
15.5.4 User Support
15.6 Ergonomics and Interface Design
15.7 Summary
16 Systems Design: System Interfaces
16.1 Introduction
16.2 Interfaces Defined
16.3 Analysing Interfaces
16.4 Physical Forms of Interfaces
16.5 Interfaces to Peripherals
16.6 Summary
17 Systems Design: Logical Data Design
17.1 Introduction
17.2 The Top-down View: Entity Modelling
17.2.1 The Entity Relationship Matrix
17.2.2 Summary of Entity Modelling
17.3 The Bottom-up View: Third Normal Form Analysis
17.4 Merging the Data Models
17.5 Testing the Data Model
17.6 The Data Dictionary
17.6.1 Advanced Features of a Data Dictionary
17.7 Summary
18 Systems Design: Files
18.1 Introduction
18.2 Types of Data
18.3 Storage Media
18.3.1 Magnetic Disk
18.4 File Organisation
18.4.1 Serial Organisation
18.4.2 Sequential Organisation
18.4.3 Indexed Sequential Organisation
18.4.4 Random Organisation
Fig. 18.5 Full index organisation
18.4.5 Full Index Organisation
18.4.6 Chained Data
18.5 Access Methods
18.6 Factors Influencing File Design
18.7 Summary
19 Systems Design: Databases
19.1 Introduction
19.2 Database Concepts
19.3 Database Models
19.4 File Management Systems
19.5 Hierarchical Database Systems
19.6 Network Database Systems
19.7 Relational Database Systems
19.7.1 Data Structure
19.7.2 Data Manipulation
19.8 RDBMS Design
19.9 Futures
19.10 Summary
20 Systems Design: Physical Data Design
20.1 Introduction
20.2 Quantifying the Data Storage Requirements
20.3 Assessing the Required System Performance
20.3.1 Factors Affecting System Performance
20.3.2 Overheads that Adversely Affect System Performance
20.4 Investigating the Chosen Hardware/Software Platform
20.4.1 Data Storage
20.4.2 Data Transfer
20.4.3 The Programming Language Used
20.5 Moving from Logical to Physical Data Design
20.5.1 Creating a Physical Data Design
20.5.2 Data Access Diagrams
20.5.3 Refining the Physical Data Design
20.6 Summary
21 Systems Design: Data Communications
21.1 Introduction
21.2 Basic Concepts
21.3 The Use and Provision of Networks
21.4 Carrying Information Across Networks
21.4.1 Local Area Networks
21.4.2 Wide Area Networks
21.5 Standards and Standards-making Bodies
21.5.1 The OSI Reference Model
21.5.2 The Upper Layers
21.5.3 The Lower Layers
21.5.4 The Transport Layer
21.5.5 The X and V Series Recommendations
21.5.6 TCP/IP
21.6 LANs, WANs and the Internet
21.6.1 Client/Server Architecture
21.7 Markup Languages
21.8 Summary
22 Systems Implementation
22.1 Introduction
22.2 Coding and Unit Test
22.2.1 Employing Programmers to Write Code
22.2.2 Using Code Generators
22.3 Testing: Ensuring the Quality
22.4 Data Take-on and Conversion
22.5 User Training
22.6 Going Live
22.7 The Maintenance Cycle
22.8 Summary
Change Management
23.1 Introduction
23.2 Information Technology and People
23.2.1 The Role of Analysts and Designers
23.3 Change Management
23.3.1 Unfreezing, Moving and Refreezing
23.4 The People Project
1 creating involvement;
23.4.1 Creating Involvement
23.4.2 Building Commitment
23.4.3 Providing Skills
23.4.4 Managing the Benefits
23.5 The Change Management Pay-off
23.6 Summary
What Next?
24.1 Introduction
24.2 How Did We Get Here?
24.3 What’s Happening to Work?
24.4 How Shall We Survive?
24.4.1 Globalisation
24.4.2 Technology and Organisation Design
24.5 Business Process Reengineering
24.6 Conversations and Conclusions
Bibliography and Web References
Index
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Systems Analysis and Design 2nd Edition

Systems Analysis and Design 2nd Edition

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Published by Vishakha Chopra

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Published by: Vishakha Chopra on Apr 13, 2011
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