p o p d o. 2010/5ians in Anijan in 2005 y Uze security frces, was ifte in Nveer2009, events in Kyrgyzstan in 2010 have again rawn attentin t the cnuct f the state security frces in Centra Asia.Sectin II f this aer utines the EU fraewr fr harnizing thecntr f exrts f ars an iitary equient an escries the wayin which the EU ises ars earges. Sectin III resents the atacecte fr EU annua rerts n icences an exrtsf ars an iitary equient t Centra Asia fr EUeer states, an as etais the gruns n which exrticences have een enie. Sectin IV s at the secic casef Uzeistan, etaiing ars exrts efre the EU isean ars earg in 2005 an exaining susecte eargviatins. Drawing n the receing sectins, sectin V iscusses the chaenges f using ata fr the EU annua rerts t nitr transfers f arsan iitary equient. It as cnsiers the icuty f using the ata frthese rerts t fuy unerstan icensing ecisins. The aer cncuesin sectin VI with a series f recenatins fr irving uic anariaentary versight f exrts f ars an iitary equient fr theEU.
II. European Union arms export controls
The EU Common Position
Since the 1957 Treaty f Re estaishe the EU’s reecessr, arsexrts, ang with ther efence an securityreate issues, have eenargey exete fr EU an Eurean Cunity rues.
Hwever, since1991–92, when the Eurean Cunci ate eight criteria against whichEU eer states agree t assess their ars exrts (see x 1), there haseen a cncerte ert t eve harnize ars exrt icies ang eer states.
These eight criteria were incrrate int the EureanUnin Ce f Cnuct n Ars Exrts (the EU Ce f Cnuct), whichwas ate as a iticay ining instruent y the Cunci f the Eurean Unin in June 1998.
Meer states ust eny an exrt icence if thetransfer is eee t cnict with any f criteria 1–4 an ust ‘tae int
the world’s most repressive societies’, 3 June 2010, <http://www.reedomhouse.org/template.cm?page=137>.
This section draws on Bromley, M.,
The Impact on Domestic Policy of the EU Code of Conducton Arms Exports: The Czech Republic, the Netherlands and Spain
, SIPRI Policy Paper no. 21 (SIPRI:Stockholm, 2008); and Bromley, M., ‘10 years down the track: the EU Code o Conduct on ArmsExports’,
European Security Review
, no. 39 (July 2008), pp. 11–13.
Treaty Establishing the European Economic Community (Treaty o Rome), signed 25 Mar. 1957,entered into orce 1 Jan. 1958. The ormal title was changed in 1992 to the Treaty Establishing theEuropean Community and again in 2009 to the Treaty on the Functioning o the European Union.Article 223 o the original, 1957 text was renumbered as Article 296 in 1992, and is now Article 346o the 2009 version o the treaty. The various versions o the Treaty o Rome are available at <http:// eurlex.europa.eu/en/treaties/>.
European Council, Conclusions, DOC/91/2, Luxembourg, 29 June 1991, Annex VII, ‘Declarationon nonprolieration and arms exports’; and European Council, Presidency Conclusions, DOC/92/3,Lisbon, 27 June 1992, p. 14.
Council o the European Union, European Union Code o Conduct on Arms Exports,document 8675/2/98 Rev 2, Brussels, 5 June 1998, <http://www.consilium.europa.eu/uedocs/cmsUpload/08675r2en8.pd>.
Events in Kyrgyzstan in 2010 have againdrawn attention to the conduct o thestate security orces in Central Asia