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Methods for Nano Patterning and Lithography - Material Matters v6n1

Methods for Nano Patterning and Lithography - Material Matters v6n1

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Published by Sigma-Aldrich
Read technical, expert micro-reviews on methods for nanopatterning and lithography including: water immersion lithography, electron beam lithography, focused ion beam etching, printed electronics, inkjet printing and self-assembly.
Read technical, expert micro-reviews on methods for nanopatterning and lithography including: water immersion lithography, electron beam lithography, focused ion beam etching, printed electronics, inkjet printing and self-assembly.

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Published by: Sigma-Aldrich on Apr 14, 2011
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Methods for Nanopatterningand Lithography
Materials Science
Volume 6, Number 1
Patterning Tomorrow’s Electronics
Hexauoroalcohol-unctionalizedMethacrylate Monomers orLithographic/NanopatterningMaterialsInkjet Printing as a Key Enabling Technology or Printed ElectronicsConductive Polymers or AdvancedMicro- and Nano-abricationProcessesMicro and Nanometer ScalePhotopatterning o Sel-assembledMonolayers
        I      n       t      r      o        d      u      c       t       i      o      n
Aldrich Chemical Co., Inc.Sigma-Aldrich Corporation
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Material Matters 
,please contact us by:Phone:
Attn: Marketing CommunicationsAldrich Chemical Co., Inc.Sigma-Aldrich CorporationP.O. Box 2988Milwaukee, WI 53201-2988
International customers, please contact your local Sigma-Aldrichofce. For worldwide contact inormation, please see back cover.
Material Matters 
is also available in PDF ormat on the Internetat 
.Aldrich brand products are sold through Sigma-Aldrich, Inc.Sigma-Aldrich, Inc. warrants that its products conorm tothe inormation contained in this and other Sigma-Aldrichpublications. Purchaser must determine the suitability o theproduct or its particular use. See reverse side o invoice orpacking slip or additional terms and conditions o sale.All prices are subject to change without notice.
 Material Matters
(ISSN 1933–9631) is a publication o AldrichChemical Co., Inc. Aldrich is a member o the Sigma-AldrichGroup. © 2011 Sigma-Aldrich Co.
Vol. 6, No. 1
Welcome to the irst 2011 issue o 
Material Matters™ 
Methodsfor Nanopatterning and Lithography 
. This issue describes a number o methods used to create patterned material eatures on the nanoscale,which are crucial in the generation o electronic devices. There area variety o techniques or abricating on sub-micron-length scales,spanning rom sophisticated, top-down lithographic methods that havetheir origins in the electronics industry to more recent advancementsincorporating bottom-up approaches that rely on sel-organization. Fornanopatterning, several approaches o both types have been proposedand well-demonstrated. The vast majority o electronic devices today are abricated using top-down photolithographic techniques that rely on sophisticated, cutting-edge instrumentationand tailored materials. For example, a typical integrated circuit consists o various patternedthin ilms o metals, dielectrics and semiconductors on substrates including silicon, galliumarsenide, or germanium. Such a device is generally abricated by lithography, whereradiation-sensitive polymeric materials called resists are used to produce desired circuitpatterns in the substrates. However, the search still continues or non-photolithographicmethods, which could provide technologically simpler and more cost-eectivenanoabrication strategies. Such methods, some o which are described in this issue, includenano-imprint lithography (including micro-contact printing, mold-assisted lithography,and hot embossing lithography), near-ield optical lithography, direct patterning on thenanometer scale using scanning-probe microscopes or inkjet printing systems, sel-assemblyo monolayers, etc.Some o these approaches are better suited or producing individual nano-structures or theinvestigation o nanometer-scale devices; the throughput is likely to remain impracticablylow or commercial application. Others, such as nanoimprint lithography, have the potentialo high throughput due to parallel processing, less sophisticated tools, and nanoscalereplication or applications such as data storage. Some new developments, includinga number o key enabling materials designed to relieve some o the high-resolutionchallenges, are presented in this issue. The issue begins with an article by researchers at the IBM Almaden Research Center(San Jose, Caliornia) who utilize luorinated methacrylate polymers as high-static, highlysoluble photoresists or 193 nm lithography. In the ollowing article, researchers at theFraunhoer Institute and Chemnitz University o Technology, Germany, describe the versatilityo inkjet printing technology in the direct-write abrication o electronic structures on avariety o rigid and lexible substrates. Proessor Rahman and his colleagues (University o Glasgow, UK) show the use o conductive polymers as charge dissipation layers or state-o-the-art high resolution patterning techniques, including electron-beam lithography. The inalarticle by Proessor Graham Leggett shows an elegant, combined bottom-up and top-downphotochemical approach using alkylphosphonic acid monolayers. Patterns are created on themonolayer by either (i) applying a mask and subsequent exposure to UV light or (ii) couplinga scanning near-ield optical microscope with a UV laser to obtain <10 nm resolution.Each article in this issue is accompanied by a list o materials available rom Aldrich® MaterialsScience. Please contact us at
i you need any material that you cannot indin our catalog, or would like a custom grade or your development work. We welcome yournew product requests and suggestions as we continue to grow our lithography/patterningmaterial oer.
About Our Cover
 The abrication and testing o most electronic semiconductor-based devices is currentlycarried out in commercialized, expansive acilities employing highly automatedphotolithographic techniques where eatures down to 45 nm and beyond are notuncommon. This top-down approach in creating integrated circuits using ilters and photomasks is considered standard practice; however, bottom-up sel-assembly approaches thatcan urther miniaturize eatures below 10 nm are now being included. The basic concept o using UV light and a mask to transcribe eatures onto an electronic substrate, such as singlecrystal silicon, is shown.
Kaushik Patel, Ph.D.Materials ScienceSigma-Aldrich Corporation
For questions, product data, or new product suggestions, please contact Aldrich Materials Science at
Materials Science
 o uM a  t   e i    a l    s M a  t   t   e 
Your Materials Matter.
Nanopatterning and Lithography Materials Featured in this Issue
Materials CategoryContentPage
HFA-MA Monomers or Lithography/NanopatterningMaterialsA list o uorinated methacrylate monomers designed specifcallyor 193 nm lithography
Monomers or UV LithographyA selection ocyclic monomers used in UV lithography
Fluorinated Monomers or UV LithographyA selection o uorinated monomers used in UV lithography
Photoacid Generators (PAGs)A list omaterials capable ocreating localized acidic environmentsupon UV light exposure used in optical lithography andphotoimaging applications
Substrates or LithographyA list osilicon waers and other substrates used in electronicmaterials research
Inks or Printing ApplicationsA variety osilver inks and pastes or use in printedelectronics research
Substrates or Printing ApplicationsA selection oglass and plastic indium oxide, indium tin oxide, anduorine tin oxide substrates
Conductive PolymersA range oconductive materials including PEDOT-based polymers,polythiophenes, polypyrroles, and polyanilines
Sel-Assembly MaterialsAn expanded selection ophosphonic acids, and monounctional,biunctional, and protected thiols used to orm monolayers on oxideand gold suraces.
Polymer Materials or StampingPMMA and PDMS-based resins or use in nanoimprint lithography
Do you have a compound that you wish Sigma-Aldrich® could list to help materials research? If it is needed to accelerate your research,it matters—please send your suggestion to 
and we will be happy to give it careful consideration.
Proessor Paul Nealey o University o Wisconsin-Madison kindlysuggested that we oer 4-vinylbenzocyclobutene (VBCB –
) as a product in our catalog. This molecule isdesigned or the preparation o ultra-thin, crosslinkable ilms tomodiy solid suraces without reliance on speciic chemistries.
Thevinyl component readily co-polymerizes with various monomersand upon subsequent heating at 250 °C the cyclobutene ring opensto produce a diene, which is capable o dimerization. This leads tothe ormation o a cross-linked polymer ilm, which orms a robustcoating on the surace and is resistant to common solvents. Inaddition, this monomer has also shown promise in the synthesiso polymers suitable as dielectric materials or microelectronicsapplications.
Polymer blends containing the VBCB unit andthermoplastic elastomers give rise to materials that maintain ahigh glass transition temperature (
) with only a slight decreasein thermal stability.
(1) Ryu, D. Y.; Shin, K.; Drockenmuller, E.; Hawker, C. J.; Russell, T. P.
, 236-239.(2) So, Y.-H.; Hahn, S. F.; Li, Y.; Reinhard, M. T.
 J. Polym. Sci., Part A: Polym. Chem.
FW 130.19
Jeff Thurston, PresidentAldrich Chemical Co., Inc.

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