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Methods for Nano Patterning and Lithography - Material Matters v6n1

Methods for Nano Patterning and Lithography - Material Matters v6n1

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Published by Sigma-Aldrich
Read technical, expert micro-reviews on methods for nanopatterning and lithography including: water immersion lithography, electron beam lithography, focused ion beam etching, printed electronics, inkjet printing and self-assembly.
Read technical, expert micro-reviews on methods for nanopatterning and lithography including: water immersion lithography, electron beam lithography, focused ion beam etching, printed electronics, inkjet printing and self-assembly.

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Published by: Sigma-Aldrich on Apr 14, 2011
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Methods for Nanopatterningand Lithography
Materials Science
TM
Volume 6, Number 1
Patterning Tomorrow’s Electronics
 
Hexauoroalcohol-unctionalizedMethacrylate Monomers orLithographic/NanopatterningMaterialsInkjet Printing as a Key Enabling Technology or Printed ElectronicsConductive Polymers or AdvancedMicro- and Nano-abricationProcessesMicro and Nanometer ScalePhotopatterning o Sel-assembledMonolayers
 
        I      n       t      r      o        d      u      c       t       i      o      n
Aldrich Chemical Co., Inc.Sigma-Aldrich Corporation
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subscription to
Material Matters 
,please contact us by:Phone:
800-325-3010
(USA)Mail:
Attn: Marketing CommunicationsAldrich Chemical Co., Inc.Sigma-Aldrich CorporationP.O. Box 2988Milwaukee, WI 53201-2988
Website:
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sams-usa@sial.com
International customers, please contact your local Sigma-Aldrichofce. For worldwide contact inormation, please see back cover.
Material Matters 
is also available in PDF ormat on the Internetat 
.Aldrich brand products are sold through Sigma-Aldrich, Inc.Sigma-Aldrich, Inc. warrants that its products conorm tothe inormation contained in this and other Sigma-Aldrichpublications. Purchaser must determine the suitability o theproduct or its particular use. See reverse side o invoice orpacking slip or additional terms and conditions o sale.All prices are subject to change without notice.
 Material Matters
(ISSN 1933–9631) is a publication o AldrichChemical Co., Inc. Aldrich is a member o the Sigma-AldrichGroup. © 2011 Sigma-Aldrich Co.
TM
Vol. 6, No. 1
Introduction
Welcome to the irst 2011 issue o 
Material Matters™ 
entitled
Methodsfor Nanopatterning and Lithography 
. This issue describes a number o methods used to create patterned material eatures on the nanoscale,which are crucial in the generation o electronic devices. There area variety o techniques or abricating on sub-micron-length scales,spanning rom sophisticated, top-down lithographic methods that havetheir origins in the electronics industry to more recent advancementsincorporating bottom-up approaches that rely on sel-organization. Fornanopatterning, several approaches o both types have been proposedand well-demonstrated. The vast majority o electronic devices today are abricated using top-down photolithographic techniques that rely on sophisticated, cutting-edge instrumentationand tailored materials. For example, a typical integrated circuit consists o various patternedthin ilms o metals, dielectrics and semiconductors on substrates including silicon, galliumarsenide, or germanium. Such a device is generally abricated by lithography, whereradiation-sensitive polymeric materials called resists are used to produce desired circuitpatterns in the substrates. However, the search still continues or non-photolithographicmethods, which could provide technologically simpler and more cost-eectivenanoabrication strategies. Such methods, some o which are described in this issue, includenano-imprint lithography (including micro-contact printing, mold-assisted lithography,and hot embossing lithography), near-ield optical lithography, direct patterning on thenanometer scale using scanning-probe microscopes or inkjet printing systems, sel-assemblyo monolayers, etc.Some o these approaches are better suited or producing individual nano-structures or theinvestigation o nanometer-scale devices; the throughput is likely to remain impracticablylow or commercial application. Others, such as nanoimprint lithography, have the potentialo high throughput due to parallel processing, less sophisticated tools, and nanoscalereplication or applications such as data storage. Some new developments, includinga number o key enabling materials designed to relieve some o the high-resolutionchallenges, are presented in this issue. The issue begins with an article by researchers at the IBM Almaden Research Center(San Jose, Caliornia) who utilize luorinated methacrylate polymers as high-static, highlysoluble photoresists or 193 nm lithography. In the ollowing article, researchers at theFraunhoer Institute and Chemnitz University o Technology, Germany, describe the versatilityo inkjet printing technology in the direct-write abrication o electronic structures on avariety o rigid and lexible substrates. Proessor Rahman and his colleagues (University o Glasgow, UK) show the use o conductive polymers as charge dissipation layers or state-o-the-art high resolution patterning techniques, including electron-beam lithography. The inalarticle by Proessor Graham Leggett shows an elegant, combined bottom-up and top-downphotochemical approach using alkylphosphonic acid monolayers. Patterns are created on themonolayer by either (i) applying a mask and subsequent exposure to UV light or (ii) couplinga scanning near-ield optical microscope with a UV laser to obtain <10 nm resolution.Each article in this issue is accompanied by a list o materials available rom Aldrich® MaterialsScience. Please contact us at
matsci@sial.com
i you need any material that you cannot indin our catalog, or would like a custom grade or your development work. We welcome yournew product requests and suggestions as we continue to grow our lithography/patterningmaterial oer.
About Our Cover
 The abrication and testing o most electronic semiconductor-based devices is currentlycarried out in commercialized, expansive acilities employing highly automatedphotolithographic techniques where eatures down to 45 nm and beyond are notuncommon. This top-down approach in creating integrated circuits using ilters and photomasks is considered standard practice; however, bottom-up sel-assembly approaches thatcan urther miniaturize eatures below 10 nm are now being included. The basic concept o using UV light and a mask to transcribe eatures onto an electronic substrate, such as singlecrystal silicon, is shown.
Kaushik Patel, Ph.D.Materials ScienceSigma-Aldrich Corporation
 
For questions, product data, or new product suggestions, please contact Aldrich Materials Science at
matsci@sial.com 
.
Materials Science
1
 o uM a  t   e i    a l    s M a  t   t   e 
Your Materials Matter.
 
Nanopatterning and Lithography Materials Featured in this Issue
Materials CategoryContentPage
HFA-MA Monomers or Lithography/NanopatterningMaterialsA list o uorinated methacrylate monomers designed specifcallyor 193 nm lithography
6
Monomers or UV LithographyA selection ocyclic monomers used in UV lithography
6
Fluorinated Monomers or UV LithographyA selection o uorinated monomers used in UV lithography
7
Photoacid Generators (PAGs)A list omaterials capable ocreating localized acidic environmentsupon UV light exposure used in optical lithography andphotoimaging applications
9
Substrates or LithographyA list osilicon waers and other substrates used in electronicmaterials research
Inks or Printing ApplicationsA variety osilver inks and pastes or use in printedelectronics research
Substrates or Printing ApplicationsA selection oglass and plastic indium oxide, indium tin oxide, anduorine tin oxide substrates
Conductive PolymersA range oconductive materials including PEDOT-based polymers,polythiophenes, polypyrroles, and polyanilines
Sel-Assembly MaterialsAn expanded selection ophosphonic acids, and monounctional,biunctional, and protected thiols used to orm monolayers on oxideand gold suraces.
Polymer Materials or StampingPMMA and PDMS-based resins or use in nanoimprint lithography
Do you have a compound that you wish Sigma-Aldrich® could list to help materials research? If it is needed to accelerate your research,it matters—please send your suggestion to 
matsci@sial.com 
and we will be happy to give it careful consideration.
Proessor Paul Nealey o University o Wisconsin-Madison kindlysuggested that we oer 4-vinylbenzocyclobutene (VBCB –
) as a product in our catalog. This molecule isdesigned or the preparation o ultra-thin, crosslinkable ilms tomodiy solid suraces without reliance on speciic chemistries.
1
Thevinyl component readily co-polymerizes with various monomersand upon subsequent heating at 250 °C the cyclobutene ring opensto produce a diene, which is capable o dimerization. This leads tothe ormation o a cross-linked polymer ilm, which orms a robustcoating on the surace and is resistant to common solvents. Inaddition, this monomer has also shown promise in the synthesiso polymers suitable as dielectric materials or microelectronicsapplications.
 
Polymer blends containing the VBCB unit andthermoplastic elastomers give rise to materials that maintain ahigh glass transition temperature (
g
) with only a slight decreasein thermal stability.
2
References
(1) Ryu, D. Y.; Shin, K.; Drockenmuller, E.; Hawker, C. J.; Russell, T. P.
Science
 
2005
,
308
, 236-239.(2) So, Y.-H.; Hahn, S. F.; Li, Y.; Reinhard, M. T.
 J. Polym. Sci., Part A: Polym. Chem.
 
2008
,
46
,2799-2806
4-Vinylbenzocyclobutene
VBCB[99717-87-0]
 
C
10
H
10
 
FW 130.19
H
2
C
1g
Jeff Thurston, PresidentAldrich Chemical Co., Inc.

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