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H&N Lecture 15

H&N Lecture 15

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Published by: Mohamed Harun B. Sanoh on Apr 15, 2011
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12/04/2012

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Lecture 1523 minutesOral cavityDone by : Nabilah Muhammad yaakobSo, this lecture is about the oral cavity. Oral cavity is very important for youto know, because
 
the teeth are inside in addition to oral part that you areinterested in.Slide 4Oral cavity consists of two parts or compartments which are ; the vestibule,externally. Here you can see the lateral part of the vestibule. And thenthere is the oral cavity proper, internally.So, the vestibule is the portion or compartment between the cheeks and thelips externally, and the teeth internally. As well as the vertical portion of the soft palate which we cannot see from here and the palatoglossal arch.So here, you can see the anterior part of the vestibule, so here you haveteeth under gums. Gums cover alveolar process and the jaw, and then youhave the lips. Now above the mucous membrane, attaching lips to the gums-- we called it labia frenulum. So you have one up here, and another one(down) here.Inside the oral cavity proper, there is the tongue. Anchoring thetongue to floor of the mouth is another mucous membrane – we called thelingual frenulum.Slide 3If you see here, the cheeks or buccal mucosa ,you can see a small papilla,it’s an opening to the parotid gland. if you remember, it is opposite to uppersecond molar.Slide 5Now, here is the oral cavity proper. Again this is the tongue, now there islingual vein. In fact, you can see lingual vein through the transparentmucosa membrane of anterior sulcus of the tongue. here, is the lingualfrenulum. At each side of lingual frenulum, there is small papilla where the
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duct of submandibular gland is opened. And you remember, where thesubmandibular duct is located.And lateral to sublingual papilla, there is afold called sublingual fold – containing sublingual gland and the openings of their ducts.So here, this is the palate. In fact, the most posterior part of the palate isthe soft palate, it has the uvula that hanging down posteriorly. Here, this isthe fold called the palatoglossal fold which is more anterior. More posterioris another fold called the palatopharyngeal fold. Now between those twofolds, you have palatine tonsils. Now remember that the oral cavity opensposteriorly into oropharynx through the beginning of oropharynx which iscalled pharyngeal recess. This is the floor of oral cavity proper, composed of the palate - hard palateanteriorly (occupying larger portion of the palate) and then soft palate moreposteriorly. Now remember that the hard palate, as the name indicates andas you are aware with, is the bony palate. It consists of portion of twobones- anteriorly it is formed by palatine process of maxillae, andposteriorly by horizontal plate of palatine bone.Remember that the hard palate is covered by mucoperiosteum; mucousmembrane with periosteum. And please remember that mucoperiosteum ;mucous membrane with periosteum contains many components which arethe nerves and the blood supplies to the hard palate as well as the palatinegland. If you remember, this is the greater palatine foramen. If youremember greater palatine artery which is the branch of maxillary artery,specifically pterygopalatine portion of maxillary artery and thenaccompanying the greater palatine nerve, exit through greater palatineforamen. It drains to the sulcus of high palate in mucoperiosteum.Here , you have the incisive foramen which is the opening of incisive canaland do remember the nasopalatine nerve comes out the incisiceforamen.Remember that in the midline of periosteum, there is raphae.Whenever we say raphae, it’s just like white line. So it forms raphae in themidline and
 
several short transverse line. So longitudinal one in themidline, and then here is short tranverse palatine fold.Here , regarding the soft palate. Soft palate is composed of muscles andfibrous tissue. Therefore it is fibromuscular structure. Now, there are three
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muscles in this palate, which will be explained in a minute. Here , this ispalatine aponeurosis – this white thing, it forms the central portion of softpalate . the muscles of soft palate attach together at the palatineaponeurosis.Palatine aponeurosis is formed by the tendon of one of the soft palatemuscles which is called tensor veli palatine muscle. This muscle isoriginated from pterygoid hamulus. Do you remember pterygoid hamulus ?it’s continuation of two pterygoid plate (between them). So this tensor velipalatine muscle comes down from this pterygoid hamulus and meets thetendon of the same opposite muscle, extending as palatine aponeurosis.Again, this is the uvula. Remember the uvula is formed by musculus uvulaeor the uvula muscle.Here again, you saw a fold in the previous slide that is called palatoglossalfold . it overlies or contains palatoglossal muscle. And then, posterior to it –is the palatopharyngeal fold which contains posterior muscle which ispalatopharyngeus muscle.
Table 11-9 : Muscles of Soft PalateMusclesOriginInsertionNerveSupplyAction
 Tensor VeliPalatiniSpine of sphenoid,auditorytubeWithmuscle of other side,formspalatineaponeurosisNerve tomedialpterygoid –frommandibulardivision of trigeminalnerve Tenses softpalateLevator VeliPalatiniPetrouspart of temporalbonePalatineaponeurosisPharyngealplexusRaises softpalatePalatoglossusPalatineaponeurosisSide of tonguePharyngealplexusPulls root of tongueupward and
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