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Introduction of doppler effect

Introduction of doppler effect

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Published by: Kamal on Apr 15, 2011
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10/24/2012

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Introduction of doppler effect:
 
Due to the relative motion between the source and the observer there is a change infrequency of wave motion. This is known as doppler effect. The doppler effect is also termedas doppler shift. We can understand the doppler effect by two methods. Either by observingthe sound wave or by light wave.
 
Doppler Effect in Light:
Doppler effect in light:
 
The light has a very high speed for atomic sources having high velocities. The lightcoming from the atomic sources has a shift in its wavelength. This effect is observed asdoppler effect.
 
Red shift in doppler effect:
 
When a light source emits a light at a particular frequency and if the source is travellingaway from us. Then we can see the wavelength is to be longer. The color of the light isshifted to the direction of red end of the spectrum which is known as red shift.
 
Applications of Doppler Effect in Light:
Applications:
 
y
 
Doppler effect is used in traffic control. Its can detect the vehicles crossing the speedlimit. The name of the instrument used for traffic control authorities is radar gun.
Radar gun:
It used the radio waves. The radio waves are passing along the direction of the speeding vehicle and the reflected frequency is taken. By finding the difference betweenthe frequencies the police can find out the speed of the vehicle.
 
y
 
Doppler effect of light is useful to track the artificial satellites.
 
y
 
The main application of doppler effect in light is in astrophysics. That is it is usefulfor learning the stars, galaxies.
 
y
 
Doppler effect in light has an application of finding the speed of stars, galaxies andalso it is for finding the rotation of sun¶s disc.
 
y
 
The spectra of galaxies shows that the lines of galaxies are red shifted. It is becausethe wavelength is shifted to the direction red color end of the spectrum. The rate of shift is based on the velocity of the source.
 
 
 Whenever there is a relative motion between a source of light and theobserver, the apparent frequency of light received by the observer isdifferent from the true frequency of light emitted actually from the source of light.
y
 
If a source of light emits waves of frequency f and of wavelength l, then thevelocity of light would be c = lf.
y
 
When the source and the observer approach each other with a velocity valong the direction of propagation of light, then in one second, the two comecloser by a distance v.
y
 
\
Apparent frequency = number of light waves received per second by theobserver.
y
 
|
= number of light waves emitted/sec by source + number of light wavescontained in a distance v
y
 
y
 
y
 
C
learly f 
|
>f 
y
 
When the source and the observer move away from each other, then,
y
 
y
 
y
 
y
 
y
 
y
 
y
 
y
 
 
y
 
y
 
When source and the observer approach each other Df is +ve and theapparent frequency f 
l
increases or apparent wavelength decreases. This is'Blue Shift'.
y
 
When the source and the observer recede away from each other, Df isnegative and the apparent wavelength increases. This is called the Red shift.
 Applications
y
 
The Doppler effect provides a convenient means of tracking a satellite thatis emitting a radio signal of constant frequency. The frequency of the signalreceived on the Earth changes as the satellite is passing. If the receivedsignal is combined with a constant signal generated in the receiver to giverise to beats, then the beat can have a frequency that produces an audiblenote, whose pitch decreases as the satellite passes overhead.
y
 
The traffic police use a technique based on Doppler principle to detectoverspeeding of vehicles on highways. An electromagnetic wave is emitted by a source at the side of the road attached to a police car. The wave isreflected by a moving vehicle, which thus, acts as a moving source. Thereflected wave will have a Doppler shift in frequency. Measurement of thefrequency shift using the phenomenon of beats, permits the measurement of the speed of the vehicle.
y
 
The Doppler effect for light is important in astronomy. Two stars whichrevolve around one another are called double stars or spectroscopic binaries.When one is approaching the Earth, the other will be receding and thiscauses a split in the spectral lines, due to change in the frequency of the lightemitted. The phenomenon of red shift in the light from stars helps inunderstanding the theory of expanding universe.
Light waves from a moving source experience the Doppler effect toresult in either a red shift or blue shift in the light's frequency. This isin a fashion similar (though not identical) to other sorts of waves,such as sound waves. The major difference is that light waves do notrequire a medium for travel, so the classical application of the
 
Doppler effect doesn't apply precisely to this situation.

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