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Surveying Traverse Calculation

Surveying Traverse Calculation

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Published by: Good Note on Apr 15, 2011
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Surveying -Traverse
Almost all surveying requires some calculations toreduce measurements into a more useful form fordetermining distance, earthwork volumes, land areas,etc.
A traverse is developed by measuring the distanceand angles between points that found the boundary ofa site
We will learn several different techniques to computethe area inside a traverse
Introduction
Distance -Traverse
Methods of Computing Area
A simple method that is useful for rough areaestimates is a
 graphical method 
In this method, thetraverse is plotted toscale on graph paper,and the number ofsquares inside thetraverse are counted
ADCB
Distance -Traverse
Methods of Computing Area
ACBabc
α
1sin2
Area ABC a
α 
=
Distance -Traverse
Methods of Computing Area
ACBabc
α
1sin2
Area ABD a
α 
=
Dd
β
1sin2
Area BCD b
β 
=
Area ABCD Area ABD Area BC
= +
Distance -Traverse
Methods of Computing Area
ACBabc
α
1sin2
Area ABE a
α 
=
Ed
β
1sin2
Area CDE c
β 
=
De
To compute
Area BCD 
more data is required
Surveying -Traverse
Before the areas of a piece of land can be computed,it is necessary to have a
closed traverse 
The
interior angles 
of a
closed traverse 
should total:
(
-2)(180°)
where
is the number of sides of the traverse
Balancing Angles
CIVL 1112Surveying - Traverse Calculations1/14
 
Surveying -Traverse
Balancing Angles
BDACError of closureAngle containing mistake
Surveying -Traverse
A surveying heuristic is that the total angle should notvary from the correct value by more than the squareroot of the number of angles measured times theprecision of the instrument
For example an eight-sided traverse using a 1’transit,the maximum error is:
Balancing Angles
1'8
±
3'
= ±
2.83'
= ±
Surveying -Traverse
If the angles do not close by a reasonable amount,mistakes in measuring have been made
If an error of 1’is made, the surveyor may correctone angle by 1’
If an error of 2’is made, the surveyor may correcttwo angles by 1’each
If an error of 3’is made in a 12 sided traverse, thesurveyor may correct each angle by 3’/12 or 15”
Balancing Angles
ENSW
Surveying -Traverse
The
closure 
of a traverse is checked by computingthe latitudes and departures of each of it sides
Latitudes and Departures
AENBDeparture
AB
Latitude
AB
SWCDLatitude
CD
Departure
CD
Bearing
Bearing
Surveying -Traverse
The
latitude 
of a line is its projection on the north–south meridian
Latitudes and Departures
The
departure 
of a line isits projection on the east–west line
A northeasterly bearinghas a + latitude and+ departure
AENBDeparture
AB
Latitude
AB
SWBearing
Surveying -Traverse
Consider the following statement:
“If start at one corner of a closed traverse and walk its lines until you return to your starting point, you will have walked as far north as you walked south and as far east as you have walked west” 
Therefore --
Σ
latitudes = 0
and
Σ
departures = 0
Error of Closure
CIVL 1112Surveying - Traverse Calculations2/14
 
Surveying -Traverse
When latitudes are added together, the resultingerror is called the
error in latitudes (E 
 ) 
The error resulting from adding departures togetheris called the
error in departures (E 
 ) 
Error of Closure
Surveying -Traverse
If the measured bearings and distances are plottedon a sheet of paper, the figure will not close becauseof
and
Error of Closure
ACBDE
L
E
D
Error of closure
( )
( )
22
closure 
E E
= +
Precisionperimeter
closure 
=
Typical precision: 1/5,000 for rural land, 1/7,500for suburban land, and 1/10,000 for urban land
Surveying -Traverse
Latitudes and Departures -Example
EBADCS 6
°
15W
189.53’
S 29
°
38E
175.18’
N 81
°
18W
175.18’
N 12
°
24W
142.39’
N 42
°
59E
234.58’
Surveying -Traverse
ENSWABLatitude
AB
Departure
AB
Latitudes and Departures -Example
S 6
°
15W
= =
(189.53)sin(615')20.63
o
W ft f
= =
(189.53)cos(615')188.40
o
S ft f
189.53’
Surveying -Traverse
ENSWBCLatitude
BC
Departure
BC
Latitudes and Departures -Example
S 29
°
38E
(175.18)sin(2938')86.62
E ft f
+ = =
o
= =
(175.18)cos(2938')152.27
o
S ft f
175.18’
Surveying -Traverse
Latitudes and Departures -Example
Side Length (ft) Latitude Departure
degree minutes
AB S 6 15 W 189.53 -188.403 -20.634BC S 29 38 E 175.18 -152.268 86.617CD N 81 18 W 197.78 29.916 -195.504DE N 12 24 W 142.39 139.068 -30.576EA N 42 59 E 234.58 171.607 159.933939.46 -0.079 -0.163Bearing
( )
( )
22
closure 
E E
= +
( ) ( )
22
0.0790.163
= +
0.182
ft 
=
Precisionperimeter
closure 
=
0.181939.46ft
ft 
=
15,176
=
CIVL 1112Surveying - Traverse Calculations3/14

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