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teoria de cuerdas

teoria de cuerdas

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Published by Jaime A. Dalton

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Published by: Jaime A. Dalton on Apr 16, 2011
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SUSX–TP–94–74IMPERIAL/TP/94-95/5NI94025
Cosmic strings
M B Hindmarsh
†§
and T W B Kibble
‡§
School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, University of Sussex, Brighton BN19QH, UK
Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2BZ, UK
§
Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences, 20 Clarkson Road, CambridgeCB3 0EH, UKSubmitted to:
Rep. Prog. Phys.
Date: 7 March 20011
 
Abstract.
The topic of cosmic strings provides a bridge between the physics of thevery small and the very large. They are predicted by some unified theories of particleinteractions. If they exist, they may help to explain some of the largest-scalestructuresseen in the Universe today. They are ‘topological defects’ that may have been formedat phase transitions in the very early history of the Universe, analogous to thosefound in some condensed-matter systems — vortex lines in liquid helium, flux tubesin type-II superconductors, or disclination lines in liquid crystals. In this review, wedescribe what they are, why they have been hypothesized and what their cosmologicalimplications would be. The relevant background from the standard models of particlephysics and cosmology is described in section 1. In section 2, we review the idea of symmetry breaking in field theories, and show how the defects formed are constrainedby the topology of the manifold of degenerate vacuum states. We also discuss thedifferent types of cosmic strings that can appear in different field theories. Section 3is devoted to the dynamics of cosmic strings, and section 4 to their interaction withother fields. The formation and evolution of cosmic strings in the early Universe isthe subject of section 5, while section 6 deals with their observational implications.Finally, the present status of the theory is reviewed in section 7.2
 
Contents
Page1 Introduction1.1 Outline1.2 Symmetry, spontaneous symmetry breaking and symmetry restoration1.3 Defect formation1.4 The Big Bang1.5 Unification1.6 Inflation1.7 Cosmic strings2 Strings in field theories2.1 Global strings2.2 Local or gauge strings2.3 Vortices and topology2.4 Semi-local and electroweak vortices2.5 Composite defects: strings and domain walls2.6 Composite defects: strings and monopoles2.7 Superconducting strings: bosonic currents2.8 Superconducting strings: fermionic currents2.9 Strings in unified theories3 String dynamics3.1 Equations of motion3.2 Strings in Minkowski space3.3 Strings with damping3.4 Superconducting string effective action3.5 Global string effective action3.6 Intercommuting4 String interactions4.1 Gravity4.2 Gravitational radiation from loops4.3 Gravitational radiation from infinite strings4.4 Pseudoscalar and electromagnetic radiation4.5 Particle emission3

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