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Groundwater Part I

Groundwater Part I

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Published by: ebassal on Apr 16, 2011
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Prepared by: Amr A. El-Sayed, CEE VT1
Groundwater review 
Part I
By: Amr A. El-SayedCEE VT, 2004
Prepared by: Amr A. El-Sayed, CEE VT2
Selected Definitions used in Groundwater Hydrology
- A formation, group of formations, or part of a formation that contains sufficient saturatedpermeable material to yield significant quantities of water to wells and springs. Aquifers can beartesian (confined), or unconfined. An unconfined aquifer has no confining beds between the zoneof saturation and the aquifer, and the water table represents the top of the unconfined aquifer. Theunconfined aquifer is also called a water-table aquifer. Aconfinedaquifer is overlain by a confiningbed such that the hydraulic head in the aquifer is above the height of the top of the aquifer.
- A low-permeable unit that can store ground water and transmit it slowly from one aquifer toanother.
Capillary fringe
- the zone immediately above the water table in which all or some of the interstices are filledwith water that is under less than atmospheric pressure and that is continuous with thewater below the water table. Water is held above the water table by surface tension.
Confining layer
- a body of material of low hydraulic conductivity that is stratigraphically adjacent to one ormore aquifers. It may lie above or below the aquifer. Also called confining bed. If the bed isdiscontinuous and is represented as lenses of low conductivity material the lenses arereferred to as interbeds.
 Drainage basin
- the land area from which surface runoff drains into a stream system.
  Fluid potential 
- the mechanical energy per unit mass of a fluid at any given point in space and time withrespect to an arbitrary state and datum. Ground water moves from a region of high fluidpotential to a region of lower fluid potential. The movement of fluid represents a loss inmechanical energy, which is converted to heat by friction with the porous medium throughwhich it travels.
  Head, total hydraulic
- represents the sum of three components: (1) elevation head, which is equal to theelevation above a datum, (2) pressure head, which is the height of a column of static water that can be supported by the static pressure at the point, and (3)velocity head, which is the height the kinetic energy of the fluid is capable of liftingthe liquid.Hydraulic Head
h Hydraulic head ….. (L) (m)P Fluid pressure (Force/Area) ….. (F/L2)
Specific weight (Force/Volume) ….. (F/L
)z Elevation ….. (L)*
(water) = 9810 Newton/m
= 9.81 KN/m
1 Pascal = N/m
( )( )
( )
( )
m zmKN KPaPmh
 / 81.9
Prepared by: Amr A. El-Sayed, CEE VT3
 Pressure =
 L Area LForce AreaForce
= Potential energy / unit volume
 Hydraulic conductivity
- a coefficient of proportionality describing the rate at which water is transmittedthrough a unit width of aquifer under a unit hydraulic gradient.
 ρ µ 
, is the intrinsic (basic and essential, of itself) permeability (dimensions of L
 L Lg L M  L M  L
= ⎠ ⎞⎝ ⎛  ⎠ ⎞⎝ ⎛  ⎠ ⎞⎝ ⎛  ⎠ ⎞⎝ ⎛ =
 ρ µ 
= ⎠ ⎞⎝ ⎛  ⎠ ⎞⎝ ⎛  ⎠ ⎞⎝ ⎛  ⎠ ⎞⎝ ⎛ =
 ρ µ 
is a one dimensional flow equation.
 Hydraulic gradient
- is the change in static head per unit of distance in a given direction.Mathematically it is equal to the maximum rate of change in head and whosedirection is that in which the maximum rate of decrease occurs.
Hydraulic gradient =
- is a measure of the relative ease with which a porous medium can transmit a liquid under apotential gradient. It is a property of the medium alone and is independent of the nature of the liquid and of the force field causing movement.
- a property of the rock or soil describing the void space between grains and may bequantitatively expressed as the volume of voids to its total volume. Effective porosity refersto the amount of interconnected pore space available for fluid transmission.

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