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Areas, volumes and simple sums
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Areas of simple shapes
Figure 1.1. Planar regions whose areas are given by elementary formulae
1.3 Simple volumes
Figure 1.4. 3-dimensional shapes whose volumes are given by elementary formulae
1.3.1 Example 3: The Tower of Hanoi: a tower of disks
1.4 Summations and the “Sigma” notation
1.4.1 Manipulations of sums
1.5 Summation formulas
1.5.1 Example 3, revisited: Volume of a Tower of Hanoi
1.6 Summing the geometric series
1.7 Prelude to inﬁnite series
1.7.1 The inﬁnite geometric series
1.7.2 Example: A geometric series that converges
1.7.3 Example: A geometric series that diverges
1.8 Application of geometric series to the branching structure of the lungs
1.8.1 Assumptions
Table 1.1. Typical structure of branched airway passages in lungs
1.8.2 A simple geometric rule
1.8.3 Total number of segments
1.8.4 Total volume of airways in the lung
1.8.5 Total surface area of the lung branches
1.8.6 Summary of predictions for speciﬁc parameter values
1.8.7 Exploring the problem numerically
1.8.8 For further independent study
1.9 Summary
Table 1.5. Surface areas of 3D shapes
2.1 Areas in the plane
2.2 Computing the area under a curve by rectangular strips
2.2.1 First approach: Numerical integration using a spreadsheet
2.3 The area of a leaf
2.4 Area under an exponential curve
2.5 Extensions and other examples
2.6 The deﬁnite integral
2.6.1 Remarks
2.6.2 Examples
2.7 The area as a function
3.2 Properties of the deﬁnite integral
3.3 The area as a function
3.4 The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus
3.4.1 Fundamental theorem of calculus: Part I
3.4.2 Example: an antiderivative
3.4.3 Fundamental theorem of calculus: Part II
3.5 Review of derivatives (and antiderivatives)
3.6 Examples: Computing areas with the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus
3.6.1 Example 1: The area under a polynomial
3.6.2 Example 2: Simple areas
3.6.3 Example 3: The area between two curves
3.6.4 Example 4: Area of land
3.7 Qualitative ideas
3.7.1 Example: sketching A(x)
3.8 Some ﬁne print
3.8.1 Function unbounded I
3.8.2 Function unbounded II
3.8.3 Example: Function discontinuous or with distinct parts
3.8.4 Function undeﬁned
3.8.5 Inﬁnite domain (“improper integral”)
3.9 Summary
Applications of the deﬁnite integral to velocities and rates
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Displacement, velocity and acceleration
4.2.1 Geometric interpretations
4.2.2 Displacement for uniform motion
4.2.3 Uniformly accelerated motion
4.2.4 Non-constant acceleration and terminal velocity
4.3 From rates of change to total change
4.3.1 Tree growth rates
4.3.2 Radius of a tree trunk
4.3.3 Birth rates and total births
4.4 Production and removal
4.5 Present value of a continuous income stream
4.6 Average value of a function
4.7 Summary
Applications of the deﬁnite integral to calculating volume, mass, and length
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Mass distributions in one dimension
5.2.1 A discrete distribution: total mass of beads on a wire
5.2.2 A continuous distribution: mass density and total mass
5.2.3 Example: Actin density inside a cell
5.3 Mass distribution and the center of mass
5.3.1 Center of mass of a discrete distribution
5.3.2 Center of mass of a continuous distribution
5.3.3 Example: Center of mass vs average mass density
5.3.4 Physical interpretation of the center of mass
5.4 Miscellaneous examples and related problems
5.4.1 Example: A glucose density gradient
5.4.2 Example: A circular colony of bacteria
5.5 Volumes of solids of revolution
5.5.1 Volumes of cylinders and shells
5.5.2 Computing the Volumes
5.6 Length of a curve: Arc length
5.6.1 How the alligator gets its smile
5.6.2 References
5.7 Summary
Techniques of Integration
6.1 Differential notation
6.2 Antidifferentiation and indeﬁnite integrals
6.2.1 Integrals of derivatives
6.3 Simple substitution
6.3.1 Example: Simple substitution
6.3.2 How to handle endpoints
6.3.3 Examples: Substitution type integrals
6.3.4 When simple substitution fails
6.4 More substitutions
6.4.1 Example: perfect square in denominator
6.4.2 Example: completing the square
6.4.3 Example: factoring the denominator
6.5.5 Example: The centroid of a two dimensional shape
6.5.6 Example: tan and sec substitution
Figure 6.5. As in Figure 6.3 but for example 6.5.6
6.6 Partial fractions
6.6.1 Example: partial fractions (1)
6.6.2 Example: partial fractions (2)
6.6.3 Example: partial fractions (3)
6.7 Integration by parts
6.8 Summary
Discrete probability and the laws of chance
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Dealing with data
7.3 Simple experiments
7.3.1 Experiment
7.3.2 Outcome
7.3.3 Empirical probability
7.3.4 Theoretical Probability
7.3.5 Random variables and probability distributions
7.3.6 The cumulative distribution
7.4 Examples of experimental data
7.4.1 Example1: Tossing a coin
7.5 Mean and variance of a probability distribution
7.6 Bernoulli trials
7.6.1 The Binomial distribution
7.6.2 The Binomial theorem
7.6.3 The binomial distribution
The binomial distribution
7.6.4 The normalized binomial distribution
7.7 Hardy-Weinberg genetics
7.7.1 Random non-assortative mating
7.8 Random walker
7.9 Summary
Continuous probability distributions
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Basic deﬁnitions and properties
8.2.1 Example: probability density and the cumulative function
8.3 Mean and median
8.3.1 Example: Mean and median
8.3.2 How is the mean different from the median?
8.3.3 Example: a nonsymmetric distribution
8.4 Applications of continuous probability
8.4.2 Discrete versus continuous probability
8.4.3 Example: Student heights
8.4.4 Example: Age dependent mortality
8.5.1 Deﬁnition of moments
8.5.3 Example: computing moments
8.6 Summary
Differential Equations
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Unlimited population growth
9.2.1 A simple model for population growth
9.2.2 Separation of variables and integration
9.3 Terminal velocity and steady states
9.3.1 Ignoring friction: the uniformly accelerated case
9.3.2 Including friction: the case of terminal velocity
terminal velocity
9.4 Related problems and examples
9.4.1 Blood alcohol
9.4.2 Chemical kinetics
9.5 Emptying a container
9.5.1 Conservation of mass
9.5.2 Conservation of energy
9.5.3 Putting it together
9.5.4 Solution by separation of variables
9.5.5 How long will it take the tank to empty?
9.6 Density dependent growth
9.6.1 The logistic equation
9.6.2 Scaling the equation
9.6.3 Separation of variables
9.6.4 Application of partial fractions
9.6.5 The solution of the logistic equation
9.6.6 What this solution tells us
9.7 Extensions and other population models: the “Law of Mortality”
9.7.1 Aging and Survival curves for a cohort:
9.7.2 Gompertz Model
9.8 Summary
Inﬁnite series, improper integrals, and Taylor series
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Convergence and divergence of series
10.3 Improper integrals
10.3.2 Example: The improper integral of 1/x diverges
10.3.3 Example: The improper integral of 1/x2
10.3.4 When does the integral of 1/xp
10.3.5 Integral comparison tests
10.4 Comparing integrals and series
10.4.1 The harmonic series
10.5 From geometric series to Taylor polynomials
10.5.1 Example 1: A simple expansion
10.5.2 Example 2: Another substitution
10.5.3 Example 3: An expansion for the logarithm
10.5.4 Example 4: An expansion for arctan
10.6 Taylor Series: a systematic approach
10.6.1 Taylor series for the exponential function, ex
10.6.2 Taylor series of trigonometric functions
10.7 Application of Taylor series
10.7.1 Example 1: using a Taylor series to evaluate an integral
10.7.2 Example 2: Series solution of a differential equation
10.8 Summary
11.1 How to prove the formulae for sums of squares and cubes
11.3 Physical interpretation of the center of mass
11.4 The shell method for computing volumes
11.4.1 Example: Volume of a cone using the shell method
11.5 More techniques of integration
11.5.1 Secants and other “hard integrals”
11.5.2 A special case of integration by partial fractions
11.6 Analysis of data: a student grade distribution
11.6.2 Fraction of students that scored a given grade
11.6.3 Frequency distribution
11.6.4 Average/mean of the distribution
11.6.5 Cumulative function
11.6.6 The median
11.7 Factorial notation
11.8 Appendix: Permutations and combinations
11.8.1 Permutations
11.9 Appendix: Tests for convergence of series
11.9.1 The ratio test:
11.9.2 Series comparison tests
11.9.3 Alternating series
11.11 Using series to solve a differential equation
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Math 103

# Math 103

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11/19/2011

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