Areas, volumes and
simple sums

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Areas of simple shapes

Figure 1.1. Planar regions whose areas are given by elementary formulae

1.3 Simple volumes

Figure 1.4. 3-dimensional shapes whose volumes are given by elementary formulae

1.3.1 Example 3: The Tower of Hanoi: a tower of disks

1.4 Summations and the “Sigma” notation

1.4.1 Manipulations of sums

1.5 Summation formulas

1.5.1 Example 3, revisited: Volume of a Tower of Hanoi

1.6 Summing the geometric series

1.7 Prelude to inﬁnite series

1.7.1 The inﬁnite geometric series

1.7.2 Example: A geometric series that converges

1.7.3 Example: A geometric series that diverges

1.8 Application of geometric series to the branching
structure of the lungs

1.8.1 Assumptions

Table 1.1. Typical structure of branched airway passages in lungs

1.8.2 A simple geometric rule

1.8.3 Total number of segments

1.8.4 Total volume of airways in the lung

1.8.5 Total surface area of the lung branches

1.8.6 Summary of predictions for speciﬁc parameter values

1.8.7 Exploring the problem numerically

1.8.8 For further independent study

1.9 Summary

Table 1.5. Surface areas of 3D shapes

2.1 Areas in the plane

2.2 Computing the area under a curve by rectangular
strips

2.2.1 First approach: Numerical integration using a
spreadsheet

2.2.3 Comments

2.3 The area of a leaf

2.4 Area under an exponential curve

2.5 Extensions and other examples

2.6 The deﬁnite integral

2.6.1 Remarks

2.6.2 Examples

2.7 The area as a function

3.2 Properties of the deﬁnite integral

3.3 The area as a function

3.4 The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus

3.4.1 Fundamental theorem of calculus: Part I

3.4.2 Example: an antiderivative

3.4.3 Fundamental theorem of calculus: Part II

3.5 Review of derivatives (and antiderivatives)

3.6 Examples: Computing areas with the
Fundamental Theorem of Calculus

3.6.1 Example 1: The area under a polynomial

3.6.2 Example 2: Simple areas

3.6.3 Example 3: The area between two curves

3.6.4 Example 4: Area of land

3.7 Qualitative ideas

3.7.1 Example: sketching A(x)

3.8 Some ﬁne print

3.8.1 Function unbounded I

3.8.2 Function unbounded II

3.8.3 Example: Function discontinuous or with distinct parts

3.8.4 Function undeﬁned

3.8.5 Inﬁnite domain (“improper integral”)

3.9 Summary

Applications of the
deﬁnite integral to
velocities and rates

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Displacement, velocity and acceleration

4.2.1 Geometric interpretations

4.2.2 Displacement for uniform motion

4.2.3 Uniformly accelerated motion

4.2.4 Non-constant acceleration and terminal velocity

4.3 From rates of change to total change

4.3.1 Tree growth rates

4.3.2 Radius of a tree trunk

4.3.3 Birth rates and total births

4.4 Production and removal

4.5 Present value of a continuous income stream

4.6 Average value of a function

4.7 Summary

Applications of the
deﬁnite integral to
calculating volume,
mass, and length

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Mass distributions in one dimension

5.2.1 A discrete distribution: total mass of beads on a wire

5.2.2 A continuous distribution: mass density and total mass

5.2.3 Example: Actin density inside a cell

5.3 Mass distribution and the center of mass

5.3.1 Center of mass of a discrete distribution

5.3.2 Center of mass of a continuous distribution

5.3.3 Example: Center of mass vs average mass density

5.3.4 Physical interpretation of the center of mass

5.4 Miscellaneous examples and related problems

5.4.1 Example: A glucose density gradient

5.4.2 Example: A circular colony of bacteria

5.5 Volumes of solids of revolution

5.5.1 Volumes of cylinders and shells

5.5.2 Computing the Volumes

5.6 Length of a curve: Arc length

5.6.1 How the alligator gets its smile

5.6.2 References

5.7 Summary

Techniques of
Integration

6.1 Differential notation

6.2 Antidifferentiation and indeﬁnite integrals

6.2.1 Integrals of derivatives

6.3 Simple substitution

6.3.1 Example: Simple substitution

6.3.2 How to handle endpoints

6.3.3 Examples: Substitution type integrals

6.3.4 When simple substitution fails

6.3.5 Checking your answer

6.4 More substitutions

6.4.1 Example: perfect square in denominator

6.4.2 Example: completing the square

6.4.3 Example: factoring the denominator

6.5.5 Example: The centroid of a two dimensional shape

6.5.6 Example: tan and sec substitution

Figure 6.5. As in Figure 6.3 but for example 6.5.6

6.6 Partial fractions

6.6.1 Example: partial fractions (1)

6.6.2 Example: partial fractions (2)

6.6.3 Example: partial fractions (3)

6.7 Integration by parts

6.8 Summary

Discrete probability and
the laws of chance

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Dealing with data

7.3 Simple experiments

7.3.1 Experiment

7.3.2 Outcome

7.3.3 Empirical probability

7.3.4 Theoretical Probability

7.3.5 Random variables and probability distributions

7.3.6 The cumulative distribution

7.4 Examples of experimental data

7.4.1 Example1: Tossing a coin

7.4.2 Example 2: grade distributions

7.5 Mean and variance of a probability distribution

7.6 Bernoulli trials

7.6.1 The Binomial distribution

7.6.2 The Binomial theorem

7.6.3 The binomial distribution

The binomial distribution

7.6.4 The normalized binomial distribution

7.7 Hardy-Weinberg genetics

7.7.1 Random non-assortative mating

7.8 Random walker

7.9 Summary

Continuous probability
distributions

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Basic deﬁnitions and properties

8.2.1 Example: probability density and the cumulative
function

8.3 Mean and median

8.3.1 Example: Mean and median

8.3.2 How is the mean different from the median?

8.3.3 Example: a nonsymmetric distribution

8.4 Applications of continuous probability

8.4.1 Radioactive decay

8.4.2 Discrete versus continuous probability

8.4.3 Example: Student heights

8.4.4 Example: Age dependent mortality

8.5.1 Deﬁnition of moments

8.5.3 Example: computing moments

8.6 Summary

Differential Equations

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Unlimited population growth

9.2.1 A simple model for population growth

9.2.2 Separation of variables and integration

9.3 Terminal velocity and steady states

9.3.1 Ignoring friction: the uniformly accelerated case

9.3.2 Including friction: the case of terminal velocity

terminal velocity

9.3.3 Steady state

9.4 Related problems and examples

9.4.1 Blood alcohol

9.4.2 Chemical kinetics

9.5 Emptying a container

9.5.1 Conservation of mass

9.5.2 Conservation of energy

9.5.3 Putting it together

9.5.4 Solution by separation of variables

9.5.5 How long will it take the tank to empty?

9.6 Density dependent growth

9.6.1 The logistic equation

9.6.2 Scaling the equation

9.6.3 Separation of variables

9.6.4 Application of partial fractions

9.6.5 The solution of the logistic equation

9.6.6 What this solution tells us

9.7 Extensions and other population models: the
“Law of Mortality”

9.7.1 Aging and Survival curves for a cohort:

9.7.2 Gompertz Model

9.8 Summary

Inﬁnite series, improper
integrals, and Taylor
series

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Convergence and divergence of series

10.3 Improper integrals

10.3.2 Example: The improper integral of 1/x diverges

10.3.3 Example: The improper integral of 1/x2

10.3.4 When does the integral of 1/xp

10.3.5 Integral comparison tests

10.4 Comparing integrals and series

10.4.1 The harmonic series

10.5 From geometric series to Taylor polynomials

10.5.1 Example 1: A simple expansion

10.5.2 Example 2: Another substitution

10.5.3 Example 3: An expansion for the logarithm

10.5.4 Example 4: An expansion for arctan

10.6 Taylor Series: a systematic approach

10.6.1 Taylor series for the exponential function, ex

10.6.2 Taylor series of trigonometric functions

10.7 Application of Taylor series

10.7.1 Example 1: using a Taylor series to evaluate an integral

10.7.2 Example 2: Series solution of a differential equation

10.8 Summary

11.1 How to prove the formulae for sums of squares
and cubes

11.3 Physical interpretation of the center of mass

11.4 The shell method for computing volumes

11.4.1 Example: Volume of a cone using the shell method

11.5 More techniques of integration

11.5.1 Secants and other “hard integrals”

11.5.2 A special case of integration by partial fractions

11.6 Analysis of data: a student grade distribution

11.6.1 Deﬁning an average grade

11.6.2 Fraction of students that scored a given grade

11.6.3 Frequency distribution

11.6.4 Average/mean of the distribution

11.6.5 Cumulative function

11.6.6 The median

11.7 Factorial notation

11.8 Appendix: Permutations and combinations

11.8.1 Permutations

11.9 Appendix: Tests for convergence of series

11.9.1 The ratio test:

11.9.2 Series comparison tests

11.9.3 Alternating series

11.10 Adding and multiplying series

11.11 Using series to solve a differential equation