This book is an account of the important influence on the developmentof mathematical logic of Charles S. Peirce and his student O. H. Mitchell,through the work of Ernst Schr6der, Leopold L6wenheim, and ThoralfSkolem. As far as we know, this book is the first work delineating thisline of influence on modern mathematical logic.Modern model theory began with the seminal papers of L6wenheim(1915) "On possibilities in the calculus of relatives" and Skolem (1923)"Some remarks on axiomatized set theory." They showed that in first-order logic, if a statement has an infinite model, it also has a modelwith countable domain. They observed that second-order logic fails tohave this property; witness the axioms for the real number field. Theirpapers focused the attention of a growing number of logicians, startingwith Kurt G6del and Jacques Herbrand, on models of tirst-order the-ories. ~ This became the main preoccupation of model theory and alarge component of mathematical logic as it developed over the rest ofthe twentieth century. In addition, the work of Herbrand, based on thenotion of Skolem function, became, through J. Alan Robinson, the mainbasis of systems of automated reasoning.A careful examination of the contributions of Peirce, Mitchell,Schr6der, and L6wenheim sheds light on several questions: How didfirst-order logic as we know it develop? What are the real contributions~We do not discuss here the Frege-Russell-l-Iilbert tradition leading to first-order logicand G6dei, since this development has many excellent treatments in the literature already,such as the beautiful book of the late .lean van Heijenoort,
From Frege to GiMeL
Van Hei-jenoort's book treats Frege, L6wenheim, and Skolem, but does not cover either Peirce'sor Schr6der's work, which led to L6wenheim's paper. This omission is also present in thehistorical papers of other otherwise very well-read logicians. There are masterful accountsof tile seminal papers of LSwenheim and Skolem in the late Burton Dreben's introductionto G6del's thesis in
Collected Works oJKurt (,iidel
and in the late Hao Wang's introductionto Skolem's
Selected Works in Logic.
But Peirce and Schr6dcr get no attention.