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Discrete Mathematics

Discrete Mathematics

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Published by Lee Gao
Weee, CS2800
Weee, CS2800

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Published by: Lee Gao on Apr 18, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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10/06/2013

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Preface
Discrete mathematics deals with objects that come in
discrete
bundles, e.g., 1or 2 babies. In contrast, continuous mathematics deals with objects that vary
continuously 
, e.g., 3.42 inches from a wall. Think of digital watches versusanalog watches (ones where the second hand loops around continuously withoutstopping).Why study discrete mathematics in computer science? It does not directlyhelp us write programs. At the same time, it is the mathematics underlyingalmost all of computer science. Here are a few examples:
Designing high-speed networks and message routing paths.
Finding good algorithms for sorting.
Performing web searches.
Analysing algorithms for correctness and efficiency.
Formalizing security requirements.
Designing cryptographic protocols.Discrete mathematics uses a range of techniques, some of which is seldomfound in its continuous counterpart. This course will roughly cover the follow-ing topics and specific applications in computer science.1. Sets, functions and relations2. Proof techniques and induction3. Number theorya) The math behind the RSA Crypto system4. Counting and combinatorics5. Probabilitya) Spam detectionb) Formal security6. Logica) Proofs of program correctness7. Graph theorya) Message Routingb) Social networks8. Finite automata and regular languagesa) Compilersi
 
iiIn the end, we will learn to write precise mathematical statements that cap-tures what we want in each application, and learn to prove things about thesestatements. For example, how will we formalize the infamous zero-knowledgeproperty? How do we state, in mathematical terms, that a banking protocolallows a user to prove that she knows her password, without ever revealing thepassword itself?
 
Chapter 1
Sets, Functions and Relations
“A happy person is not a person in a certain set of circumstances, but rather a person with a certain set of attitudes.”– Hugh Downs
1.1 Sets
A set is one of the most fundamental object in mathematics.
Definition 1.1
(Set, informal)
.
A set is an
unordered 
collections of objects.Our definition is informal because we do not define what a “collection” is;a deeper study of sets is out of the scope of this course.
Example 1.2.
The following notations all refer to the same set:
{
1
,
2
}
,
{
2
,
1
}
,
{
1
,
2
,
1
,
2
}
,
{
x
|
x
is an integer
,
1
x
2
}
The last example read as “the set of all
x
such that
x
is an integer between 1and 2 (inclusive)”.We will encounter the following sets and notations throughout the course:
=
{ }
, the empty set.
N
=
{
0
,
1
,
2
,
3
,...
}
, the non-negative integers
N
+
=
{
1
,
2
,
3
,...
}
, the positive integers
Z
=
{
...,
2
,
1
,
0
,
1
,
2
...
}
, the integers
Q
=
{
q
|
q
=
a/b, a,b
Z
, b
= 0
}
, the rational numbers
Q
+
=
{
q
|
q
Q
, q >
0
}
, the positive rationals
R
, the real numbers
R
+
, the positive realsGiven a collection of objects (a set), we may want to know how large is thecollection:1

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