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Report on green engineering

Report on green engineering

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Published by Pratik Mor

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Published by: Pratik Mor on Apr 18, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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04/18/2011

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PREFACE
Everyday radios, newspapers, televisions and the internet warn us of energy exhaustion,atmospheric pollution and hostile climatic conditions. After few hundred years of industrialdevelopment, we are facing these global problems while at the same time we maintain a highstandard of living. The most important problem we are faced with is whether we shouldcontinue "developing" or "die".Coal, petroleum, natural gas, water and nuclear energy are the five main energy sources thathave played important roles and have been widely used by human beings. The United NationsEnergy Organization names all of them "elementary energies", as well as "conventionalenergies". Electricity is merely a "second energy" derived from these sources. At present, theenergy consumed all over the world almost completely relies on the supply of the five mainenergy sources. The consumption of petroleum constitutes approximately 60 percent of energyused from all sources, so it is the major consumer of energy.
Green engineering is the process and design of products that conserve natural resources, and impact thenatural environment as little as possible. The term is often applied to housing, but it can be used forautomobiles, lights or any other sort of system or device that requires engineering, and incorporatessound environmental principles. Though green engineering is somewhat more expensive, manycountries, recognizing the value of such work, have begun to offer tax breaks, and other incentives tothose who incorporate its use.
 
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Table of Contents
Indian Energy and Climate Change Status ........................................................................................ 1
1.1 Climate Change and Existing Relevant Policies..................................................................11.2 Energy Sector Overview ......................................................................................................31.3 The Power Market in India and the Role of Renewable Energy .........................................8
The Status of Renewable Energy in India ........................................................................................ 8
2.1 Renewable Energy Share of Electricity .............................................................................102.2 Renewable Energy Application in Industrial Use and Transportation ..............................122.5 Grid Connection and Status Overview ..............................................................................142.6 Renewable Purchase Obligations and Renewable Energy Credits ....................................16
Wind Power ......................................................................................................................................... 17
3.1 Wind Power Potential ........................................................................................................183.2 Installed Capacity and Power Generation..........................................................................213.3 Success Stories from the International Community and Potential Opportunities forIndia ...................................................................................................................................21
Solar Power ......................................................................................................................................... 21
4.1 Solar Photovoltaics ............................................................................................................224.2 Concentrating Solar Power ................................................................................................304.3 Solar Water Heating...........................................................................................................30
Small Hydro......................................................................................................................................... 31
5.1 Resource/Technological Potential .....................................................................................315.2 Installed Capacity...............................................................................................................325.3 Investment Flows and Industrial Trends............................................................................325.4 Implication in Rural Electrification ...................................................................................335.5 Technology Development and Transfer.............................................................................335.6 Local Case Studies .............................................................................................................345.7 Success Stories from the International Community and Potential Opportunities forIndia ...................................................................................................................................35
Bioenergy ............................................................................................................................................ 35
6.1 Biogas ................................................................................................................................366.2 Solid Biomass ....................................................................................................................396.3 Liquid Biofuels ..................................................................................................................40
Bibliogrphy
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
..41
 
 
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Indian Energy and Climate Change Status
 
India has great potential to accelerate the use of its endowed renewable resources to power its growingeconomy with a secure and affordable energy supply. The Government of India recognizes thatdevelopment of local, renewable resources is critical to ensure that it is able to meet both its economicand environmental objectives, and it has promoted this development through policy action.The Indian economy has experienced tremendous growth over the past several years. Energy, in all itsforms, underpins both past and future growth. For the Indian economy to continue this trajectory, Indianeeds to address its energy challenges, which cross all sectors and impact all citizens. Electricity
bothin terms of quality and access
is a key challenge.Th
e quality of the current electricity supply is impeding India’s economic growth. Issues such as voltage
fluctuation, frequency variation, spikes, black-outs, brown-outs, and other disruptions impact industrial,commercial, and residential consumers. The addition of grid-tied renewable power can help addressthese issues. The gap between the demand of customers connected to the grid and the availableelectricity supply reported by the Central Electricity Authority for 2009
 –
2010 was almost 84 TWh, whichis 10% of the total requirement. The peak demand deficit was more than 15 GW, corresponding to ashortage of 12.7%. Closing this gap will be critical for India to achieve its growth targets, and renewableenergy has the potential to improve energy security and reduce dependence on imported fuels andelectricity while striving to meet those goals.
Much of India’s population is not experiencing the benefits of economic growth. The Government of 
India sees the provision of electricity to all as critical to inclusive growth. It recognizes off-grid renewableenergy as a practical, cost-effective alternative to an expansion of grid systems in remote areas of thecountry.To be able to provide adequate electricity to its population, India needs to more than double its current
installed capacity to over 300 GW by 2017. Also, India’s demand for oil in 2015 is expected to be 41%
higher than in 2007 and almost 150% higher in 2030
needed primarily to feed a growing transportationsector. The Indian government is aware of the size and importance of the challenges and that successwill depend on structural changes in the industry and on new technologies and business models.Renewable energy is well positioned to play a critical role in addressing this growing energy demand forthe following reasons:
India has the natural resources.
:- India has abundant, untapped renewable energy resources, includinga large land mass that receives among the highest solar irradiation in the world, a long coastline andhigh wind velocities that provide ample opportunities for both land-based and offshore wind farms,significant annual production of biomass, and numerous rivers and waterways that have potential forhydropower.
Renewable energy provides a buffer against energy security concerns
:- In
dia’s use of its indigenous
renewable resources will reduce its dependence on imported, expensive fossil fuels.

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