, a highly successful order teaching poor boys across Italy, isabolished by the pope for child sexual abuse. Founded by the patron saint of Catholiceducation, St. José Calasanz, the order had been taken over by a pedophile ring, andfinally busted by the Roman Inquisition. The order will be quietly revived later, but thesescandals are successfully concealed until the opening of the Inquistion's own archivesat the dawn of the twenty-first century.
– The Spanish Inquisition is abolished by decree. Archives show its continualintervention in clergy sex cases until the very end.
–"Maria Monk," an alleged escapee from a Canadian convent, is the first to break
silence about sexual and other abuse in nunneries. She is nearly universally reviled anddisbelieved.
– American historianHenry Charles Leapublishes a three-volume study oncelibacy in the Catholic Church which reveals the long and often futile struggle toimpose chastity on clerics, including the involvement of the Inquisition, and is largelyignored
– Personal friend of Lincoln and former American priest, Charles Chiniquy, bitterly
complains of the current ongoing dangers and results of solicitation in
The Priest, TheWoman, and the Confessional
– The now-Universal Roman Inquisition is renamed the "Supreme SacredCongregation of the Holy Office" and given authority across the globe.
– Any knowledge at all of the Holy Office's role in sex crimes is now deemed tooscandalous. New rules were written. They have never been released.
Servants of the Paraclete
, a religious order dedicated to helping fallenpriests, is established with headquarters in Jemez Springs, New Mexico by Fr. GeraldFitzgerald.
– An American ex-Franciscan, Emmett McGloughlin, in his autobiography firstreveals the existence of the Jemez Springs establishment as one "ecclesiastic prison"among others where priests are sent without trial for sexual offenses, alcoholism, andinsubordination.
– Reporting laws that mandate disclosure of sex abuse appear for the first timeand McGloughlin publishes another book with a few more details on Jemez Springs.Prophetically, he writes, "The sexual affairs of priests in the U.S. are more closelyguarded secrets than the classified details of our national defense."
On March 16
, Cardinal Alberto Ottaviani, the head of the Holy Office, presents PopeJohn XXIII with
, in English,
Instruction on the Manner of Proceeding in Cases of Solicitation
(pdf ). This is a highly secret document containing
instructions for bishops on how to proceed trying cases of sexual abuse andhomosexuality among clerics.
, the Second Vatican Council begins.
The secret system was inadvertently broken during the Ecumenical Council. Though ithappened as an unintended consequence of trying to protect progressive theologians, JosephRatzinger was undoubtedly largely responsible for this.
after the Council began, the head of the liberal faction, Cardinal Josef Frings of Belguim, opposes Ottaviani's proposed plan of discussion. Ottaviani boycottsthe Council for weeks out of pique, giving liberals the chance to determine their ownagenda. Among them is
, one of Frings' trusted theological advisors.
On November 8, 1963
, Frings gives a rousing speech that Ratzinger wrote calling for reform of the Holy Office and its "medieval ways." It is enthusiastically applauded. PopePaul VI calls Frings that evening to tell him that the reform will go through.
Heated discussions over celibacy
and the clergy also consume the Council. Finally inthe
Decree on the Life and Ministry of Priests
, carefully coded language reveals that1)
priests will no longer be punished
for sexual transgressions but treated with "withfraternal charity and magnanimity" and 2)
celibacy is not necessary
for the priesthoodbut would still be demanded of Latin-rite priests. This sets the stage for the great clergyexodus.
On December 7, 1965
, the very last day of the Council, the reform of the Holy Office isannounced. It will henceforth be called the "Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith"(CDF). Some secrecy will be ended, priests would be given certain rights of appeal andrepresentation, and the
Index of Forbidden Books
will be discontinued. Ominously, theCDF is given the power of questioning faith and morals anywhere in the entire Church.Only the Pope retains more power.
, any knowledge of the Holy Office's role insex crimes isnow deemed tooscandalous.New ruleswere written.They havenever beenreleased.