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Campylobacter

Campylobacter

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Published by sarguss14
Transcription regarding Campylobacter
Transcription regarding Campylobacter

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Published by: sarguss14 on Aug 30, 2008
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07/27/2011

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MICROCAMPYLOBACTER
BACTERIAEPIDEMIOLOGPATHOGENESIS ANDIMMUNITY VIRULENCE FACTORSTREATMENT, PREVENTION ANDCONTROLCharacteristics
Gram-negative
Helical
(spiral or curved) morphology; Tend to be pleomorphic
 
Characteristics that
facilitate penetration and colonizationof mucosal environments
(e.g., motile by polar flagella;corkscrew shape)
 
Microaerophilic
atmospheric requirements
Become
coccoid
when exposed to oxygen or upon prolongedculture
 
Neither
 
ferment nor oxidize carbohydratesHistory
First isolated as
Vibrio fetus
in 1909 from spontaneous abortionsin livestock
Campylobacter enteritis
was not recognized until the mid-1970s when selective isolation media were developed forculturing campylobacters from human feces
Most common form of acute infectious diarrhea indeveloped countries
; Higher incidence than
Salmonella
&
Shigella
combined
 
In the U.S., >2 million cases annually, an annual incidence closeto the 1.1% observed in the United Kingdom; Estimated 200-700 deaths
Morphology and Physiology
Small
, thin (0.2 - 0.5 um X 0.5 - 5.0 um),
helical
(spiral orcurved) cells with typical gram-negative cell wall; “Gull-winged” appearance
o
 Tendency to form coccoid & elongated forms on prolongedculture or when exposed to O2
 
Distinctive rapid
darting motility
 
o
Long sheathed polar flagellum at one (
polar
) or both(
bipolar
) ends of the cell
o
Motility slows quickly in wet mount preparation
Microaerophilic
&
capnophilic
5%O2,10%CO2,85%N2
Thermophilic
(42-43C) (except
C. fetus
)
o
Body temperature of natural avian reservoir
May become
nonculturable
in nature
Guillain-Barre Syndrome
Contaminatedpoultry
accounts formore than half of thecamylobacteriosis casesin
developedcountries
but differentepidemiological picturein developing countries
In U.S.
and
developedcountries
: Peakincidence in childrenbelow one year of ageand young adults (15-24 years old)
 
In developingcountries
wherecampylobacters arehyperendemic:Symptomatic diseaseoccurs in young childrenand persistent,asymptomatic carriagein adults
 
Infectious dose andhost immunity
determine whethergastroenteric diseasedevelops
Some peopleinfected with as fewas 500 organismswhile others need>106 CFU
Pathogenesis not fullycharacterized
No good animalmodel
Damage (ulcerated,edematous andbloody) to the
mucosal surfaces
of the jejunum,ileum, colon
 
Inflammatoryprocess consistentwith
invasion
of theorganisms into theintestinal tissue; M-cell (Peyerspatches) uptake andpresentation of antigen tounderlying lymphaticsystem
 
Non-motile & adhesin-lacking strains are
avirulentCellular Components
Endotoxin
 
Flagellum: Motility
 
Adhesins: Mediateattachment to mucosa
 
Invasins
GBS is associated with
C. jejuni
serogroup O19
S-layer
protein“microcapsulein
C.fetus
:
Extracellular Components
Enterotoxins
Cytopathic toxins
Gastroenteritis:
Self-limiting; Replace fluids andelectrolytes
 
Antibiotic treatment can shortenthe excretion period;
Erythromycin
is
drug of choice
for severe orcomplicated enteritis &bacteremia; Fluroquinolones arehighly active (e.g., ciprofloxacinwas becoming drug of choice)but
fluoroquinoloneresistance
has developedrapidly since the mid-1980sapparently related tounrestricted use and the use of enrofloxacin in poultry
Azithromycin
was effective inrecent human clinical trials
Control should be directed atdomestic animal reservoirs andinterrupting transmission tohumans
 
Guillain-Barre Syndrome (GBS)
Favorable prognosis withoptimal supportive care
Intensive-care unit for 33% of cases
The principle of alchemy is “exact exchange.” If we want to do something, we have to pay a cost.^_^ shar ^_^1

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