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Mayer_2007_Innate Immunity

Mayer_2007_Innate Immunity

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Published by Rizki Dwi P
Phagocytes and PMN as the main defenses of cellular innate immunity also give damage-effect to the body by producing it's free radicals
Phagocytes and PMN as the main defenses of cellular innate immunity also give damage-effect to the body by producing it's free radicals

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Published by: Rizki Dwi P on Apr 19, 2011
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02/07/2013

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COURSE: Medical Microbiology, MBIM 650/720 - Fall 2007TOPIC: Innate (Nonspecific) Immunity Lecture 1FACULTY: Dr. Mayer Office: Bldg. #2, Rm B18Phone: 733-3281Email: MAYER@MED.SC.EDUTEACHING OBJECTIVES:1 To recognize the significance of the immune system in combating infection and disease.2. To distinguish between the innate (non-specific) and adaptive (specific) immune systems.3. To understand the mechanisms of combating infection/disease (killing pathogens).4. To know the humoral and cellular components of innate immunity.5. To comprehend the mechanism of action of the humoral and cellular components of innate immunitySUPPLEMENTAL READING:Male
et. al.
: Immunology (7th Ed.).Chpt. 1, pp. 19-28, Chpt. 6KEY WORDS:Innate immunity, Adaptive immunity, Opsonin, Barriers to infection, Fc receptor,Complement receptor, Scavenger receptor, Toll-like receptor, Respiratory burst, Phagosome,Phagolysosome, Myeloperoxidase, NADPH oxidase, NK cells, LAK cells, K cells, ADCC
INNATE (NONSPECIFIC) IMMUNITY
I. Overview of the Immune SystemWe are constantly being exposed toinfectious agents and yet, in mostcases, we are able to resist theseinfections. It is our immune systemthat enables us to resist infections.The immune system is composed of two major subdivisions, the innate or nonspecific immune system and theadaptive or specific immune system(Figure 1). The innate immune systemis our first line of defense againstinvading organisms while the adaptive immune system acts as a second line of defense
Immune SystemInnate Adaptive(Nonspecific) (Specific)CellularComponentsHumoralComponentsCellular HumoralComponentsComponents
Figure 1. Overview of the Immune System
 
 
and also affords protection against re-exposure to the same pathogen. Each of the major subdivisions of the immune system has both cellular and humoral components by whichthey carry out their protective function (Figure 1). In addition, the innate immune systemalso has anatomical features that function as barriers to infection. Although these twoarms of the immune system have distinct functions, there is interplay between thesesystems (
i.e
, components of the innate immune system influence the adaptive immunesystem and
vice versa
.Although the innate and adaptive immune systems both function to protect againstinvading organisms, they differ in a number of ways. The adaptive immune systemrequires some time to react to an invading organism, whereas the innate immune systemincludes defenses that, for the most part, are constitutively present and ready to bemobilized upon infection. Second, the adaptive immune system is antigen specific andreacts only with the organism that induced the response. In contrast, the innate system isnot antigen specific and reacts equally well to a variety of organisms. Finally, theadaptive immune system demonstrates immunological memory. It “remembers” that ithas encountered an invading organism and reacts more rapidly on subsequent exposure tothe same organism. In contrast, the innate immune system does not demonstrateimmunological memory.All cells of the immune system have their origin in the bone marrow and theyinclude myeloid (neutrophils, basophils,eosinpophils, macrophages and dendriticcells) and lymphoid (B lymphocyte, Tlymphocyte and Natural Killer) cells(Figure 2), which differentiate alongdistinct pathways (Figure 3). Themyeloid progenitor (stem) cell in the bone marrow gives rise to erythrocytes, platelets, neutrophils,monocytes/macrophages and dendriticcells whereas the lymphoid progenitor (stem) cell gives rise to the NK, T cellsand B cells. For T cell developmentthe precursor T cells must migrate tothe thymus where they undergodifferentiation into two distinct typesof T cells, the CD4+ T helper cell andthe CD8+ pre-cytotoxic T cell. Twotypes of T helper cells are produced inthe thymus the TH1 cells, which helpthe CD8+ pre-cytotoxic cells todifferentiate into cytotoxic T cells, andTH2 cells, which help B cells,
Immune System
Lymphoid Cells
Myeloid Cells
T cells B cellsGranulocytic Monocytic
NK cellsNeutrophils Macrophages Helper cellsBasophils Kupffer cells Suppressor cellsPlasma cellsEosinophils Dendritic cells Cytotoxic cells
Figure 2. Cells of the Immune System
eryplmyeneumflymnkthy
CD8
+
CD4
+
CTLTH2TH1
Figure 3. Development of the Immune System
 2
 
differentiate into plasma cells, which secrete antibodies.
 
The main function of the immune system is self/non-self discrimination. This ability todistinguish between self and non-self is necessary to protect the organism from invading pathogens and to eliminate modified or altered cells (
e.g.
malignant cells). Since pathogens may replicate intracellularly (viruses and some bacteria and parasites) or extracellularly (most bacteria, fungi and parasites), different components of the immunesystem have evolved to protect against these different types of pathogens. It is importantto remember that infection with an organism does not necessarily mean diseases, sincethe immune system in most cases will be able to eliminate the infection before diseaseoccurs. Disease occurs only when the bolus of infection is high, when the virulence of the invading organism is great or when immunity is compromised. Although the immunesystem, for the most part, has beneficial effects, there can be detrimental effects as well.During inflammation, which is the response to an invading organism, there may be localdiscomfort and collateral damage to healthy tissue as a result of the toxic products produced by the immune response. In addition, in some cases the immune response can be directed toward self tissues resulting in autoimmune disease.II. INNATE HOST DEFENSES
A. Anatomical barriers to infections
1.
 
Mechanical factorsThe epithelial surfaces form a physical barrier that is very impermeable to mostinfectious agents. Thus, the skin acts as our first line of defense against invadingorganisms. The desquamation of skin epithelium also helps remove bacteria andother infectious agents that have adhered to the epithelial surfaces. Movementdue to cilia or peristalsis helps to keep air passages and the gastrointestinal tractfree from microorganisms. The flushing action of tears and saliva helps preventinfection of the eyes and mouth. The trapping affect of mucus that lines therespiratory and gastrointestinal tract helps protect the lungs and digestive systemsfrom infection.2. Chemical factorsFatty acids in sweat inhibit the growth of bacteria. Lysozyme and phospholipasefound in tears, saliva and nasal secretions can breakdown the cell wall of bacteriaand destabilize bacterial membranes. The low pH of sweat and gastric secretions prevents growth of bacteria. Defensins (low molecular weight proteins) found inthe lung and gastrointestinal tract have antimicrobial activity. Surfactants in thelung act as
opsonins
(substances that promote phagocytosis of particles by phagocytic cells).3

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