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Microprocessor

Microprocessor

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Published by DurgeshPratapSingh

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Published by: DurgeshPratapSingh on Apr 19, 2011
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 A
microprocessor 
incorporates most or all of the functions of acomputer 'scentral processing unit(CPU) on a singleintegrated circuit(IC, or microchip).
[1][2]
 The first microprocessors emerged in the early 1970s and were used for electroniccalculators, usingbinary-coded decimal(BCD) arithmetic on 4-bitwords. Other embeddeduses of 4-bit and 8-bit microprocessors, such asterminals,printers, various kinds of automationetc., followed soon after. Affordable 8-bit microprocessors with 16-bit addressing alsoled to the first general-purposemicrocomputersfrom the mid-1970s on.During the 1960s, computer processors were often constructed out of small and medium-scale ICs containing from tens to a few hundredtransistors. The integration of a whole CPU onto a single chip greatlyreduced the cost of processing power. From these humble beginnings,continued increases in microprocessor capacity have rendered other forms of computers almost completely obsolete (seehistory of computing hardware), with one or more microprocessors used ineverything from the smallestembedded systemsandhandheld devicesto the largestmainframesandsupercomputers. Since the early 1970s, the increase in capacity of microprocessors hasfollowedMoore's law, which suggests that the number of transistors thatcan be fitted onto a chip doubles every two years. Although originallycalculated as a doubling every year,
[3]
Moore later refined the period totwo years.
[4]
It is often incorrectly quoted as a doubling of transistorsevery 18 months.
 
Contents
1 Firsts 
o
 
1.1 Intel 4004 
o
 
1.2 TMS 1000 
o
 
1.3 Pico/General Instrument 
o
 
1.4 CADC 
o
 
1.5 Gilbert Hyatt 
o
 
1.6 Four-Phase Systems AL1 
 
 
2 8-bit designs 3 12-bit designs 4 16-bit designs 5 32-bit designs 6 64-bit designs in personal computers 
7
Multicore designs 8 RISC 
9
Special-purpose designs 10 Market statistics 11 See also 12 Notes and references 13 External links 
[edit]
FirstsThree projects delivered a microprocessor at about the sametime:Intel's4004,Texas Instruments(TI) TMS 1000, andGarrett  AiResearch'sCentral Air Data Computer (CADC).
[edit
 
]
Int
el 4004
The4004with cover removed (left) and as actually used (right).
TheIntel 4004is generally regarded as the first microprocessor,
[5][6]
andcost thousands of dollars.
[7]
The first known advertisement for the 4004is dated November 1971 and appeared inElectronic News.
[8]
The projectthat produced the 4004 originated in 1969, whenBusicom, a Japanesecalculator manufacturer, asked Intel to build a chipset for high-performance desktop calculators. Busicom's original design called for aprogrammable chip set consisting of seven different chips. Three of thechips were to make a special-purpose CPU with its program stored inROM and its data stored in shift register read-write memory.Ted Hoff ,the Intel engineer assigned to evaluate the project, believed the Busicom
 
design could be simplified by using dynamic RAM storage for data,rather than shift register memory, and a more traditional general-purposeCPU architecture. Hoff came up with a four±chip architectural proposal:a ROM chip for storing the programs, a dynamic RAM chip for storingdata, a simple I/O device and a 4-bit central processing unit (CPU). Although not a chip designer, he felt the CPU could be integrated into asingle chip. This chip would later be called the 4004 microprocessor.The architecture and specifications of the 4004 came from theinteraction of Hoff withStanley Mazor , a software engineer reporting tohim, and with Busicom engineer Masatoshi Shima, during 1969. In April1970, Intel hiredFederico Fagginto lead the design of the four-chip set.Faggin, who originally developed the silicon gate technology (SGT) in1968 at Fairchild Semiconductor 
[9]
and designed the world¶s firstcommercial integrated circuit using SGT, the Fairchild 3708, had thecorrect background to lead the project since it was SGT that made itpossible to implement a single-chip CPU with the proper speed, power dissipation and cost. Faggin also developed the new methodology for random logic design, based on silicon gate, that made the 4004possible. Production units of the 4004 were first delivered to Busicom inMarch 1971 and shipped to other customers in late 1971.
[edit
 
]
TMS
1000
TheSmithsonian InstitutionsaysTIengineers Gary Boone and Michael Cochran succeeded in creating the first microcontroller (also called amicrocomputer) in 1971. The result of their work was the TMS 1000,which went commercial in 1974.
[10]
 TI developed the 4-bit TMS 1000 and stressed pre-programmedembedded applications, introducing a version called the TMS1802NC onSeptember 17, 1971 which implemented a calculator on a chip.TI filed for the patent on the microprocessor. Gary Boone wasawardedU.S. Patent 3,757,306for the single-chip microprocessor architecture on September 4, 1973. It may never be known whichcompany actually had the first working microprocessor running on thelab bench. In both 1971 and 1976, Intel and TI entered into broad patentcross-licensing agreements, with Intel paying royalties to TI for the

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