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Unit 7 Conservation Farming Ver 1

Unit 7 Conservation Farming Ver 1

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Published by Gandhiv Kafle

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Published by: Gandhiv Kafle on Apr 19, 2011
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02/17/2014

 
4/3/2011
 
1
 
Unit
7
ConservationFarming
Gandhiv KafleLecturer, IOF, Hetauda
WME
 
508:
 
Soil
 
and
 
water
 
conservation
 
engineering
by
 
Gandhiv
 
Kafle
 
1
 
What is conservation farming?
It is a way of farming that help farmersachieve profits with sustained productionlevels while conserving the environment.
Principles
Minimum soil disturbance
Permanent soil cover
Mixing and rotating crops
WME
 
508:
 
Soil
 
and
 
water
 
conservation
 
engineering
by
 
Gandhiv
 
Kafle
 
2
 
Conservation farmingtechniques
Shelter belts/green belts
Hedge rows
Minimum tillage
Relay cropping
Mixed cropping
Multiple cropping
Strip cropping
Cover cropping
Mulching
Green manure
Compost manure
Use of nitrogen fixing plants
WME
 
508:
 
Soil
 
and
 
water
 
conservation
 
engineering
by
 
Gandhiv
 
Kafle
 
3
 
Shelter belts / green belts
Living windbreaks
a plantation usually made up ofone or more rows of trees orshrubs planted in such a manneras to provide shelter from thewind and to protect soil fromerosion.
commonly planted around theedges of fields on farms.
WME
 
508:
 
Soil
 
and
 
water
 
conservation
 
engineering
by
 
Gandhiv
 
Kafle
 
4
 
 
4/3/2011
 
2
 
Functions of shelter belt
Reduces wind speed and wind erosion
Lowers evapotranspiration; Regulates airtemperature
Enhances soil moisture
Ultimately, increase in crop yield
WME
 
508:
 
Soil
 
and
 
water
 
conservation
 
engineering
by
 
Gandhiv
 
Kafle
 
5
 
Vegetation pattern inshelterbelt
a single line of trees or multiple rows oftrees
Rows of shrubs can also be added
placed on the windward side
WME
 
508:
 
Soil
 
and
 
water
 
conservation
 
engineering
by
 
Gandhiv
 
Kafle
 
6
 
Windward
 
 
side
 
Selection of species for shelterbelt
rapid growing,
tolerant of wind and light
frost resistant where necessary.
The branches should be pliable so that theybend with the wind instead of breaking off.
The root system should provide a firmanchorage to the soil.
Local species rather than imported species.
Mix of species
WME
 
508:
 
Soil
 
and
 
water
 
conservation
 
engineering
by
 
Gandhiv
 
Kafle
 
7
 
Width of shelter belt
about 9 m for a two-row tree belt withassociated shrubs
About 3m for single-row hedge belts.
WME
 
508:
 
Soil
 
and
 
water
 
conservation
 
engineering
by
 
Gandhiv
 
Kafle
 
8
 
 
4/3/2011
 
3
 
Spacing of shelter belt
Shelterbelt generally protects the soil fromwind erosion to distance about 10-12times its height, provided that the belt is atright angles to the wind.
So spacing of shelterbelt = (10-12)×heightof belt
WME
 
508:
 
Soil
 
and
 
water
 
conservation
 
engineering
by
 
Gandhiv
 
Kafle
 
9
 
Length of shelter belt
a minimum of 12 times the belt heightprovided that the belt is at right angles tothe wind.
To allow for deviations in wind direction, alonger length is desirable and a length of24
is generally recommended (Bates1924).
WME
 
508:
 
Soil
 
and
 
water
 
conservation
 
engineering
by
 
Gandhiv
 
Kafle
 
10
 
 
Hedgerow on sloping land
Planting of trees, shrubs orgrasses (preferably nitrogenfixing) closely in paired rowsalong the contour
Alleys between the pairedhedges is used for growingfood or cash crops.
Epil epil, kimbu, tanki
Napier, femingia, molasses
11
 
Functions of hedge rows
Reduces runoff velocity
Reinforces the slope, forms bio-terraces
Catches the soil materials and createseffective barrier to soil erosion
Conserves soil moisture
WME
 
508:
 
Soil
 
and
 
water
 
conservation
 
engineering
by
 
Gandhiv
 
Kafle
 
12
 

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