) is a condition in whichwomen without previously diagnoseddiabetesexhibithigh blood glucoselevels during pregnancy(especially during third trimester of pregnancy).Gestational diabetes generally has fewsymptomsand it is most commonly diagnosed byscreeningduring pregnancy. Diagnostic tests detect inappropriately high levels of glucosein blood samples. Gestational diabetes affects 3-10% of pregnancies, depending on the population studied.
This definition acknowledges the possibility that patients may have previously undiagnosed diabetes mellitus, or may have developeddiabetes coincidentally with pregnancy. Whether symptoms subside after pregnancy isalso irrelevant to the diagnosis.
who pioneered in research on theeffect of diabetes types on perinatal outcome, is widely used to assess maternal and fetalrisk. It distinguishes between gestational diabetes (type A) and diabetes that existed prior to pregnancy (pregestational diabetes). These two groups are further subdividedaccording to their associated risks and management.
There are 2 subtypes of gestational diabetes (diabetes which began during pregnancy):
Type A1: abnormal oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) but normal blood glucoselevels during fasting and 2 hours after meals; diet modification is sufficient tocontrol glucose levels
Type A2: abnormal OGTT compounded by abnormal glucose levels duringfasting and/or after meals; additional therapy with insulin or other medications isrequiredThe second group of diabetes which existed prior to pregnancyis also split up intoseveral subtypes.