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Published by: Sachin Kumar Bassi on Apr 19, 2011
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This article is about the corporation. For the search engine, seeGoogle search. For other uses, seeGoogle (disambiguation).
Google Inc.
Key people
Eric E. Schmidt, CEO/Director Sergey Brin, Co-Founder, TechnologyPresidentLarry Page,Co-Founder, Products PresidentGeorge Reyes, CFO
US$10.604 billion 73% (2006)
US$3.077 billion 29% (2006)
US$18.473 billion (2006)
US$17.039 billion (2006)
) is an American  public corporation, specializing inInternet searchandonline advertising.The company is based in Mountain View, California, and has 15,916 full-time employees (as of September 30, 2007).
It isthe largest American company (bymarket capitalization
) that is not part of the DowJones Industrial Average. 
Google was co-founded byLarry PageandSergey Brinwhile they were students at Stanford Universityand the company was first incorporated as a privately held companyonSeptember 7, 1998.Google's initial public offeringtook place onAugust 19, 2004, raisingUS$1.67 billion, making it worth US$23 billion. Through a series of new productdevelopments, acquisitions and partnerships, the company has expanded its initialsearch and advertisingbusiness into other areas, including web-based e-mail, online mapping, office productivity, andvideo sharing, among others.
Theyhypothesized that a search engine that analyzed the relationships between websites would produce better ranking of results than existing techniques, which ranked results accordingto the number of times the search term appeared on a page.
 Their search engine wasoriginally nicknamed "BackRub" because the system checked backlinksto estimate asite's importance.
A small search engine called Rankdex was already exploring a similar strategy.
Convinced that the pages with the most links to them from other highly relevant web pages must be the most relevant pages associated with the search, Page and Brin testedtheir thesis as part of their studies, and laid the foundation for their search engine.
Originally, the search engine used theStanford University website with the domain
. The domain
was registered onSeptember 15, 1997,
and the company was incorporated as
Google Inc.
onSeptember 7, 1998 at a friend's garage inMenlo Park, California.The total initial investment raised for the new company eventually amounted to almost US$1.1 million, including a US$100,000 check by AndyBechtolsheim, one of the founders of Sun Microsystems.
The founders originally were keen to acquire the domain "Googol.com". It was registeredto a local Silicon Valley engineer (Tim Beauchamp) who was using it as a site for mathand astronomy. He did not want to relinquish the domain at the time.
In March 1999, the company moved into offices inPalo Alto, home to several other notedSilicon Valleytechnology startups.
After quickly outgrowing two other sites, thecompany leased a complex of buildings in Mountain View at 1600 Amphitheatre Parkway fromSilicon Graphics(SGI) in 2003.
The company has remained at thislocation ever since, and the complex has since come to be known as theGoogleplex(a play on the wordgoogolplex, a 1 followed by agoogolzeros). In 2006, Google bought the property fromSGIfor US$319 million.
The Google search engine attracted a loyal following among the growing number of Internet users, who liked its simple design and usability.
In 2000, Google began sellingadvertisementsassociated with searchkeywords.
The ads were text-based to maintainan uncluttered page design and to maximize page loading speed.
 Keywords were sold based on a combination of price bid and clickthroughs, with bidding starting at US$.05 per click.
This model of selling keyword advertising was pioneered by Goto.com(later  renamed Overture Services, before being acquired byYahoo! and rebranded as Yahoo! Search Marketing).
While many of itsdot-comrivals failed in the new Internetmarketplace, Google quietly rose in stature while generating revenue.
The name "Google" originated from a misspelling of "googol",
which refers to 10
,the number represented by a 1 followed by one-hundred zeros. Having found its wayincreasingly into everyday language, the verb "google", was added to the
 and the
in 2006, meaning "touse the Google search engine to obtain information on the Internet."
A patentdescribing part of Google's ranking mechanism (PageRank 
) was granted onSeptember 4, 2001.
The patent was officially assigned to Stanford University and listsLawrence Page as the inventor.
Financing and initial public offering
The first funding for Google as a company was secured in the form of aUS$100,000contribution fromAndy Bechtolsheim, co-founder of Sun Microsystems,given to a corporation which did not yet exist.
 Around six months later, a much larger round of funding was announced, with the major investors being rival venture capital firmsKleiner Perkins Caufield & ByersandSequoia Capital.

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