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The Pariah Syndrome

The Pariah Syndrome

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Published by milton1984

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Published by: milton1984 on Apr 19, 2011
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The Pariah Syndrome:An account of Gypsy slavery and persecution  by Ian Hancock  Table of ContentsAcknowledgmentsForewordIntroductionI Out of IndiaII Reception in EuropeIII Conditions of SlaveryIV Towards AbolitionV The Post-Emancipation SituationVI Treatment Elsewhere in Europe: Transylvania, Hungaryand RussiaVII Treatment Elsewhere in Europe: Spain, Portugal andFranceVIII Treatment Elsewhere in Europe: GermanyIX German Treatment of Gypsies in the Twentieth CenturyX German and Dutch Transportations to AmericaXI Treatment Elsewhere in Europe: England and ScotlandXII British Shipment to the AmericasXIII The Contemporary Situation of Gypsies in EuropeXIV The Contemporary Situation of Gypsies in NorthAmericaXV Anti-GypsyismXVI AfterwordXVII Appendix A: Definition of TermsXVIII Appendix B: Media Representation of GypsiesXIX List of Works Consulted --------------------------------------Notes about the web version of The Pariah Syndrome:The author, Ian F. Hancock, of British Romani and HungarianRomani descent, represents Roma on the United StatesHolocaust Memorial Council. He is professor of Romani Studiesat the University of Texas at Austin, and has authored nearly300 publications. In 1997, he was awarded the international RaftoHuman Rights Prize (Norway), and in 1998 was recipient of theGamaliel Chair in Peace and Justice (USA). To contact Dr. Hancock,send e-mail to <xulaj@mail.utexas.edu>.1
 
The web version of this book includes new passages by the author not found in the original printed version. The original editionof this book (1987) uses diacritics for Romanian and Romani(Rromanes), and includes texts in the Cyrillic and Greek alphabets. When possible, care has been taken to reproduce thesediacritics, or their phonological equivalents. This has not beenentirely possible because of HTML limitations. For a faithfulrendition of all diacritics and texts, it is recommended that theprinted version of The Pariah Syndrome be consulted.Throughout, except in quotes from other works, the spellingRumania(n), rather than the more widely-accepted Romania(n) hasbeen preferred in order to distinguish it more readily fromRomani.---------------------------------Original Copyright (c) 1987 by Karoma Publishers, Inc., Ann Arbor,Michigan. ISBN 0897200799. Reproduced by the Patrin Web Journalwith the generous permission of the author, Dr. Ian F. Hancock.------------------------------------------------------------------------The Pariah Syndromeby Ian Hancock AcknowledgmentsThis is a corrected and expanded version of a monograph calledLand of Pain which I wrote and circulated among a number of colleagues in 1982. It is based upon a collection of texts whichin most cases I have had to translate, or have translated. Ishould very much like to acknowledge the help given me in thepreparation of this study by those friends and colleagues, whoinclude Thomas Acton, Sascha Bley-Vroman, Harry Bryer, MadeleineKabore, Donald Kenrick, Barbara Lalla, Ronald Lee, Joseph Miller,David Smith and, in particular, Victor Friedman. My thanks toeach of them.--------------------------------------Forewordby Dr. T.A. ActonIan Hancock is a marginal man. Like all Romani intellectuals, hehas had to live torn between the pariah status of his people andthe embrace of a dominant culture which can hardly conceive of such a monster as an educated Gypsy.Some Gypsies in this position accept this, and pass asnon-Gypsies, keeping at a distance all their Romani relatives,
 
and keeping silence at who knows what cost, to them and their ownchildren, on all of their family's past. But a sprinkling of suchpeople find a personal liberation by joining Romani organizationswhere intellectuals can make a political contribution to winninga better place in society for their people. They have to faceincomprehension by non-Gypsies, and often rejection byassimilated relatives, and the constant accusation that they arenot "true Gypsies." Face to face with the divided reality of their identity, they are like the man in Yevtushenko's poem,strung out on a high-wire "between the city of yes and the cityof no."There are many ethnic groups among the Gypsies, with a greatvariety of dialect, culture and occupation. In Europe and theWest, however, two brute historical facts have shaped their history from the 15th century on: enslavement (particularly ineastern Europe), and attempted genocide (especially in westernEurope), from which have emerged the commercial nomadism of Gypsies in western Europe and the artisan sub-proletariat of Gypsies in eastern Europe. Although the variety of Gypsy economyis, and always has been, enormous, there are perhaps three corefields in which both nomads and slaves were involved: metalwork,transport animals and vehicles, and entertainment.Ian Hancock's family belongs very much within the entertainmenttradition; arguably, as a university professor, he is still init. His forebears were among those Hungarian Gypsies from boththe Romungri and the Lovari ethnic groups who were involved withcircuses and show business and who came to England in smallnumbers in the nineteenth century and intermarried with EnglishGypsies in the same line of work. Then, as now, the Britishcircus and fairground world and its trade association, theShowmen's Guild, were dominated by the large, non-Gypsy, circusand fairground magnates, who repudiated any idea of associationwith Gypsy ethnicity for their organization, in order to make itpolitically more acceptable. The small Romani showmen, whether originating in Britain or overseas, have become in this century adistinct population in their own right. As the fairground worldhas contracted, many have settled, especially in west and southLondon. Redevelopment of areas of Battersea and Wandsworth, withtheir settled Romani populations, has in turn more recently ledsome of these families to return to a nomadic life. Some of Hancock's relatives have now married non-showmen English RomaniTravellers. It was this milieu from which Hancock's familyemigrated to Canada when he was in his early teens, and to whichhe returned as a young man, when I made his acquaintance. He hasbegun to document his own family background in the journal LacioDrom.Plucked by the London School of Oriental and African Studies in3

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