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CCPS Combined Glossary of Terms, Spring 2005

CCPS Combined Glossary of Terms, Spring 2005

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C C P S
CENTER FOR CHEMICAL PROCESS SAFETY
 
Combined Glossary of TermsSpring 2005
This list of glossary terms was compiled from the following CCPS Guidelines:o Hazard Evaluation Procedures (G1)o Hazard Evaluation Procedures - 2nd Edition (G1+)o Safe Storage & Handling of High Toxic Hazard Materials (G3)o Vapor Release Mitigation (G4)o Chemical Process Quantitative Risk Analysis (G6)o Process Equipment Reliability Data (G7)o Technical Management of Chemical Process Safety (G8)o Safety, Health & Loss Prevention in Chemical Processes (G17)o Safe Automation of Chemical Processes (G24)o Guidelines for Safe Warehousing of Chemicals (G33)o Chemical Reactivity Evaluation and Application to Process Design (G35)o Incident Investigation (G56)o Estimating the Flammable Mass of a Vapor Cloud (G60)o Guidelines for Process Safety in Batch Reaction Systems (G62)o Deflagration and Detonation Flame Arresters (G64)o Avoiding Static Ignition Hazards In Chemical Operations (G67)o Guidelines for Process Safety in Outsourced Manufacturing Operations (G68)o Revalidating Process Hazard Analyses (G71)o Wind Flow and Vapor Cloud Dispersion at Industrial and Urban Sites (G75)o Essential Practices for Managing Chemical Reactivity Hazards (G81)o Guidelines for Investigating Chemical Process Incidents Second Edition (G82)
 
2o Guidelines for Fire Protection in Chemical, Petrochemicals and Hydrocarbon Processing Facilities (G83)
Abort To terminate a procedure, such as the running of a computerprogram or the printing of a document while it is still inprogress.The process of halting a computer program in an orderlyfashion and returning control to the operator or operatingsystem. Abnormal termination of a computer program,caused by hardware or software malfunction or operatorcancellation.G24Absolute Application (ofCPQRA)The application of CPQRA in which the results of the analysisare compared against predetermined risk targets.G6Accelerating ratecalorimetry (ARC)A technique in which a substance is heated in stagesuntil very slow decomposition [or other reaction] isdetected. The substance is then held under adiabaticconditions and the course of the decomposition [orother reaction] is monitored. (Also the name of acommercial test apparatus.)Barton and Rogers 1997G81Accident, AccidentSequence, or ScenarioAn unplanned event or sequence of events that results inundesirable consequences. An incident with specific safetyconsequences or impacts.G1+AccidentAccidentAn undesirable, unplanned combination of events orcircumstances that lead to physical harm to people ordamages to property. Usually the result of contact with asource of energy above the threshold limit of the body orstructure.An event in which property damage, detrimentalenvironmental impact, or human loss (either injury or death)occurs.G56G82Accidental ChemicalReleaseAn unintended, or sudden release of chemical(s) frommanufacturing, processing, handling, or on-site storagefacilities to the air, water, or land.G56G60G68G82
 
3
ACGIH American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists;an organization of professional personnel in governmentalagencies or educational institutions engaged in occupationalsafety and health programs.
Importance:
ACGIH develops and publishes recommendedoccupational exposure limits (see TLV) for hundreds ofchemical substances and physical agents.G17Action Tracking A method of logging progress when implementing a task orset of tasks.G82Activation EnergyActivation EnergyConstant Eain the exponential part of the Arrhenius equationassociated with the minimum energy difference between thereactants and an activated complex, which has a structureintermediate to those of the reactants and the products(transition state) or with the minimum collision energybetween molecules that is required to enable a reaction.The constant
in the exponential part of theArrhenius equation, associated with the minimumenergy difference between the reactants and anactivated complex (transition state), which has astructure intermediate to those of the reactants andthe products, or with the minimum collision energybetween molecules that is required to enable areaction to occur. It is a constant that defines theeffect of temperature on reaction rate.CCPS 1995a, Barton and Rogers 1997
 
G35G81Active Equipment Denotes physical motion or activity in the performance of theequipment's function, as with rotating machinery.G7Active System A system in which failures are immediately evident duringnormal operation.G24
Acute Effect
An adverse effect on a human or animal body, with severesymptoms developing rapidly and coming quickly to a crisis.See also, "Chronic".
Importance:
How much and how long one is exposed to achemical is the critical factor to how adverse the healtheffects will be.G17
Acute Exposure
A short-term or rare exposure to a toxic agent in a singleepisode that is unlikely to recur.G3

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