Welcome to Scribd. Sign in or start your free trial to enjoy unlimited e-books, audiobooks & documents.Find out more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
2Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
O'Shea Reply Brief - Foreign Official Challenge

O'Shea Reply Brief - Foreign Official Challenge

Ratings: (0)|Views: 164|Likes:
Published by Mike Koehler

More info:

Categories:Types, Business/Law
Published by: Mike Koehler on Apr 21, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

10/23/2013

pdf

text

original

 
Case4:09-cr-00629Document58FiledinTXSDon
04/18/11
Page1of13
INTHEUNITEDSTATESDISTRICTCOURTFORTHESOUTHERNDISTRICTOFTEXASHOUSTONDIVISIONUNITEDSTATESOFAMERICA,Plaintiff,§
§
§
§§§§CRIMINALNO.Cr-H-09-629
.
JOHNJOSEPHO'SHEA,Defendant.DEFENDANTO'SHEA'SREPLYTOTHERESPONSEOFTHEUNITEDSTATESTODEFENDANT'SMOTIONTODISMISSCOUNTSONETHROUGHSEVENTEENOFTHEINDICTMENT
I.INTRODUCTION
OnMarch7,2011,Mr.O'SheafiledhisMotiontoDismissCountsOnethroughSeventeenoftheIndictment("Motion")(DocketNo.47)becauseeachofthesecountsrestsentirelyorinpartonanincorrectlegalconclusionthatastate-ownedentityis
perse
a"department,agencyandinstrumentalityofaforeigngovernment,"andthatitsofficersandemployeesare"'foreignofficials'withinthemeaningoftheFCPA."Indictment,~~5-6.OnMarch28,2011,thegovernmentfileditsResponse.(DocketNo.50).
II.
ARGUMENT
A.TheGovernmentRelieson"ProsecutorialCommonLaw"andRulingsfromCasesThatDidNotConsiderorInadequatelyConsideredtheMeaningofForeignOfficialTosupportitsexpansiveinterpretationoftheForeignCorruptPracticesAct("FCPA"),thegovernmentnotesthatthirty-fiveindividualshaveenteredguiltypleasafterbeingaccusedofviolatingtheFCPA.Responseat14.TheCourtshouldgivenoweighttotheseguiltypleasbecauseeachindividualhadhisorherownreasonsforenteringintoapleaagreementwiththegovernment.AslongasFCPAdefendants-bothindividualsandcorporations-enterintonon-prosecutionagreements,deferredprosecutionagreements,andpleaagreements,thegovernment
 
Case4:09-cr-00629Document58FiledinTXSDon
04/18/11
Page2of13
willcontinuetobuilditsarsenalof"prosecutorialcommonlaw"tosupportitsaggressiveandslantedinterpretationoftheFCPA.'Yetcourtacceptanceofpleaagreementsdoesnotconvertthegovernment'spronunciationsonthelawintosourcesoflegalauthority.Indeed,thegovernment'sstrategyofcreatingitsownwould-becommonlawthreatenstostripthefederalcourtsoftheirjudicialpowertointerprettheFCPA.Thefederalcourts,andnottheDepartmentofJusticenoranyotherdivisionoftheexecutivebranch,arethe[malarbitersofwhattheFCPAactuallyprovides.
See
U.S.Const.art.III,§1;
Marburyv.Madison,
1Cranch137,177(1803)
("It
isemphaticallytheprovinceanddutyofthejudicialdepartmenttosaywhatthelawis.");
UnitedStatesv.Nixon,
418U.S.683,704(1974)(Judicialpower"cannomorebesharedwiththeExecutiveBranchthantheChief
------------
Executive,forexample,cansharewiththeJudiciarythevetopower,ortheCongresssharewiththeJudiciarythepowertooverrideaPresidentialveto,"andsharingofpowers"wouldbecontrarytothebasicconceptofseparationofpowersandthechecksandbalancesthatflowfromtheschemeofatripartitegovernment").TheCourtshouldrejectthegovernment'sattempttobootstrapitsownexpansiveinterpretationoftheFCPAintothestatutethrough"prosecutorialcommonlaw."Thedenialoftwopastmotionstodismisssimilarlyprovidesnosupportforthegovernment'sbroadreadingof"instrumentality"intheFCPA'sforeignofficialprovision.ThegovernmentcitestoordersissuedbythedistrictcourtsintheEasternDistrictofPennsylvaniaandtheSouthernDistrictofFloridaonchallengestotheFCPA's"foreignofficial"provision.Responseat14.ButtheseordersdeniedthemotionstodismisswithlittleornosubstantiveanalysisoftheFCPAanditsforeignofficialprovision,andwithoutthebenefitoftheanalysisof
1
SeeBingham'sMichaelLevyontheRiseofProsecutorialCommonLaw,
25CorporateCrimeReporter6,Feb.7,
2011,availableat
4ttp:llwww.corporatecrimereporter.com/michaellevy020711.hhn(describingwhatauthorhascalled"prosecutorialcommonlaw")(hereinafterreferredtoas"LevyInterview").
2
 
Case4:09-cr-00629Document58FiledinTXSDon
04/18/11
Page3of13
legislativehistoryofferedintheparties'briefinginthiscase.ResponseExs.H,
1.
Amorerecentdenialofamotiontodismiss,issuedbytheHonorable
A.
HowardMatzin
UnitedStates
v.
AguilarNoriega,etal.,
No.10-1031(C.D.Ca.2011),wasapparentlytiedtothecourt'sunderstandingthatafactdisputeexistedwithregardtoComisi6nFederaldeElectricidad("CFE")'s"governmentalfunction."Thatruling,far-fromendorsingthegovernment'spositiononthescopeof"foreignofficial"intheFCPA,supportstheinquirythatMr.O'ShearequestsintothenatureandroleofCFEwithintheMexicangovernment.Similarly,whilejuryinstructionsareirrelevantwhentheissueathandwasnotconsideredbytheissuingcourt,
Mr.
O'SheahaslocatedjuryinstructionssubmittedtothejuryinatrialintheSouthernDistrictofTexasaftertheissuewaswell-arguedandassociatedfactspresentedinthedistrictcourt.In
UnitedStates
v.
McLean,
Cr.H-82-224(S.D.Tex.1985),thejuryinstructionsdefined"instrumentalityofaforeigngovernment"tomean"anyentitycreated,owned,orcontrolledbyaforeigngovernmenttoachieveagovernmentalpurposeorfunction."Ex.1,ExcerptfromRudolfB.Schlesingeretal.,ComparativeLaw:Cases,Text,andMaterials78(NewYork,FoundationPress,6thed.1998)(quotingthejuryinstructionsgivenin
McLean).
Thus,thegovernment'sattemptatcreatingaprosecutorialcommonlawaside,itcancitenoauthoritiesinsupportforitsposition,whilethecourtsthathavelookedcloselyattheissuehaveadoptedanalysesfocusedonsovereigntyorgovernmentfunction.
B.TheGovernmentTakesConflictingPositionsonHowtoDefine"Instrumentality,"ButApparentlyAcceptsa"GovernmentalFunction"Test
ThegovernmentassertsontheonehandthatinordertoshowthatCFEisaninstrumentality,itisentitledtotheopportunitytopresentfurtherfactsrelatedtothenatureofCFEandthegovernment'sownershipand/orcontrolovertheutility.Responseat2.
It
asserts
3

Activity (2)

You've already reviewed this. Edit your review.
1 thousand reads
1 hundred reads

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->