Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
8Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Systemic Embryology

Systemic Embryology

Ratings: (0)|Views: 669|Likes:
Published by Hany Shawky Nadim
Lecture notes on systemic embryology by Prof. Hany Shawky Nadim, Faculty of Medicine, October 6 University, Egypt and Ain Shams University, Egypt
Lecture notes on systemic embryology by Prof. Hany Shawky Nadim, Faculty of Medicine, October 6 University, Egypt and Ain Shams University, Egypt

More info:

Published by: Hany Shawky Nadim on Apr 21, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

11/26/2014

pdf

text

original

 
 Prof. Hany Shawky Nadim Systemic Embryology
1
 
DEVELOPMENT OF THE LIMBS
Before the 2
nd
month
, the embryo has no limbs. Theydevelop totally during the 2
nd
month (i.e., 5-8 wks).
5
th
week
-
 
Four
limb buds
develop from the body. Theupper limb buds appears
2 days
before thelower limb bud (days 28 & 30 successively).
-
 
Each
limb
bud is formed of:
1.
 
Outer ectodermal covering
forms the skin. At the tip of each bud, there is an ectodermal thickening called
apicalectodermal ridge (AER)
which has
inductive influence
onthe differentiation of limb mesoderm.2.
 
Inner mesodermal core
derived from the
lateral platemesoderm
and migrating
myotomes
.
6
th
week
-
 
A
hand plate
appears in the upper limb bud & a
foot plate
inthe lower limb bud.
-
 
Digital rays
appear due to mesodermal condensations in thehand & footplates.
-
 
Bones
appear inside the bud, at first as mesodermal condensations whichundergo chondrification followed by ossification. They appear in a proximo-distal order.
 
7
th
week
-
 
Webs between the rays break down and the digits becomeseparated by
notches
.
 
-
 
Each limb bud becomes divided into
3 segments;
arm, forearm& hand plate in the UL and thigh, leg & foot plate in the LL.
-
 
A
muscle mass
develop inside the bud around the bones.
 
8
th
week
-
 
The
digits become free
-
 
The limb buds undergo
adduction
 
and rotation:Upper limb buds Lower limb budsRotates
90°laterally. 90°medially.
Results:
 
Digits:
 
Muscles:
 
Bones:-The preaxial digit(thumb) becomes lateral.-The flexors become ant.& the extensors post.-The preaxial border(radial) becomes lateral.- The preaxial digit (bigtoe) becomes medial.-The flexors become post.& the extensors ant.-The preaxial border(tibial) becomes medial
3
rd
month: Nails
appear
4
th
month: fingerprints
develop & the muscles become strong & the baby starts to kick against theuterine wall. The mother starts to feel the movements called
quickening
 
lnnervation of the limb buds:
-
 
Nerves grow from the neural tube, their
ventral rami
enter each bud tosupply its skin and
 
muscles:1.
 
The UL. bud is supplied by ventral rami of C4 to T2 [brachial plexus].
 
 Prof. Hany Shawky Nadim Systemic Embryology
2
 
2.
 
The LL. Bud is supplied by ventral rami of L1 to S4 [lumbar & sacral plexuses].
-
 
Each spinal nerve supplies a skin area called
dermatome
. As the buds grow, the spinalnerves are elongated. As a result, the cranial dermatomes (e.g. C.4,5,6 in the case of the UL)occupy the preaxial border whereas the caudal dermatomes (C.8 & T.1,2) occupy thepostaxial border. The central dermatome
(C.7) becomes buried in the proximal part of the limb butreappears distally in the hand.
ANOMALIES:
1.
 
Amelia:
Absence of one or more limbs.
 
2.
 
Meromelia:
The limb is represented only by the hand or foot.
3.
 
Syndactyly:
Fused one or more digits.4.
 
Polydactyly:
Supernumerary digits.
5.
 
Bradydactyly:
Short digits.6.
 
Club foot:
The feet are plantar-flexed & inverted constantly.7.
 
Cleft hand or foot [Lobster Claw Deformity]:
One or moremiddle digit(s) is absent. Thus, the hand (or foot) is divided into two parts.In each part, the digits are fused.
DEVELOPMENT OF CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM
 
 
It is the
 first system to function
. The heart starts to beat in the middle of the 3
rd.
week.
 
The C.V.S. is totally
mesodermal
in origin.
DEVELOPMENT OF THE HEARTFORMATION OF THE HEART TUBE (CARDIAC LOOP):
-
 
It develops from 3
mesodermal
sources in the cranial end of the embryonic disc:
1.
 
Pericardial Sac:
is the transverse cranial part of the U-shaped
intra-embryonic coelom;
situated caudal to the septum transversum.
2.
 
Cardiogenic plate:
is an area of splanchnic mesoderm, situated
ventral
tothe pericardial sac. In it, right and left
endocardial heart tubes
develop andfuse together in the middle.
3.
 
Myoepicardial Mantle:
is a layer of 
splanchnic mesoderm
situated
between
 the pericardial sac and the endocardial heart tube. It spreads to form a coataround the heart tube.
The endocardium
is derived from the
endocardial heart tube.
The myocardium
is derived from the
myoepicardial mantle.
The epicardium
is derived from the
visceral layer of pericardial sac.
 
 Prof. Hany Shawky Nadim Systemic Embryology
3
 
-
 
As a result of folding, the heart tube and the pericardial sac rotate with the head fold. Finally, theheart tube becomes dorsal to the pericardial sac.
-
 
The endocardial heart tube
invades the pericardial sac
from its dorsal aspectdividing it into a visceral layer and a parietal layer.
-
 
Five chambers
appear as dilatations (separated by constrictions) in the heart tube.In a caudo-cranial order, they are:
 sinus venosus, atrium, ventricle, bulbus cordis, truncus arteriosus
.
-
 
The 2 ends of the heart tube are connected to the intra-embryonic vessels:1.
At the venous end
, each horn of sinus venosus receives 3 veins:a-
Vitelline vein
from the yolk sac.b-
Umbilical vein
from the placenta.c-
Common cardinal vein
from the body wall.2.
At the arterial end
, the truncus arteriosus divides into
2 horns
, each isconnected to arteries.
-
 
The heart tube elongates forming an
S-shaped cardiac loop.
The bulbus cordisshifts to the right side of the ventricle. The atrium expands transversely, bulging oneither side of the bulbus cordis forming auricles.
FATE OF THE SINUS VENOSUS
-
 
Initially, the sinus venosus opens into the middle of the back of the primitiveatrium. It divides into
two horns
(right & left). Each horn receives
3 veins
: umbilical v., vitellinev. & common cardinal v.
-
 
The opening between the sinus venosus and the atrium (
sino-atrial orifice
) has the shape of avertical slit. Its edges are called the right and left
venous valves
.
-
 
Fate:
 
Left-to-right shunt of venous blood occurs; as a result:1.
 
The
sino-atrial orifice
moves to the right and opens in the part of the primitive atrium thatwill become the right atrium.
 2.
 
The
right horn
progressively enlarges and becomes incorporated into the right atrium dueto widening of the sino-atrial orifice giving the smooth posterior part of the right atriumcalled
sinus venarum.
 
3.
 
The left horn
(
and body)
diminishes forming the coronary sinus.
4.
 
From the
6 veins,
3 veins disappear and 3 persist forming veins that open into the rightatrium
:
 
The right vitelline v. forms the upper part
of IVC 
 
The right common cardinal v. forms the
lower part of 
 
SVC 
 
The left common cardinal v. forms the
oblique vein of left atrium.
5.
 
The
venous valves
:
a.
 
The right venous valve forms
the crista terminalis
which contains the SA node
.
b.
 
The left venous valve is
incorporated 
with the inter-atrial septum.

Activity (8)

You've already reviewed this. Edit your review.
umalkhayrmahamed liked this
rupinderkk liked this
1 thousand reads
1 hundred reads
Austine Osawe liked this
amanysalama5976 liked this
Moon Hye Ra liked this

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->