Prof. Hany Shawky Nadim Systemic Embryology
As a result of folding, the heart tube and the pericardial sac rotate with the head fold. Finally, theheart tube becomes dorsal to the pericardial sac.
The endocardial heart tube
invades the pericardial sac
from its dorsal aspectdividing it into a visceral layer and a parietal layer.
appear as dilatations (separated by constrictions) in the heart tube.In a caudo-cranial order, they are:
sinus venosus, atrium, ventricle, bulbus cordis, truncus arteriosus
The 2 ends of the heart tube are connected to the intra-embryonic vessels:1.
At the venous end
, each horn of sinus venosus receives 3 veins:a-
from the yolk sac.b-
from the placenta.c-
Common cardinal vein
from the body wall.2.
At the arterial end
, the truncus arteriosus divides into
, each isconnected to arteries.
The heart tube elongates forming an
S-shaped cardiac loop.
The bulbus cordisshifts to the right side of the ventricle. The atrium expands transversely, bulging oneither side of the bulbus cordis forming auricles.
FATE OF THE SINUS VENOSUS
Initially, the sinus venosus opens into the middle of the back of the primitiveatrium. It divides into
(right & left). Each horn receives
: umbilical v., vitellinev. & common cardinal v.
The opening between the sinus venosus and the atrium (
) has the shape of avertical slit. Its edges are called the right and left
Left-to-right shunt of venous blood occurs; as a result:1.
moves to the right and opens in the part of the primitive atrium thatwill become the right atrium.
progressively enlarges and becomes incorporated into the right atrium dueto widening of the sino-atrial orifice giving the smooth posterior part of the right atriumcalled
The left horn
diminishes forming the coronary sinus.
3 veins disappear and 3 persist forming veins that open into the rightatrium
The right vitelline v. forms the upper part
The right common cardinal v. forms the
lower part of
The left common cardinal v. forms the
oblique vein of left atrium.
The right venous valve forms
the crista terminalis
which contains the SA node
The left venous valve is
with the inter-atrial septum.