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1-IEEE Drive Friendly-Fuel Cell Supercapacitor

1-IEEE Drive Friendly-Fuel Cell Supercapacitor

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Published by Pompideux
Fuel Cell, Supercapacitor, Ultracapacitor, Electric Vehicle
Fuel Cell, Supercapacitor, Ultracapacitor, Electric Vehicle

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Published by: Pompideux on Aug 31, 2008
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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05/09/2014

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 january/february 2008
IEEE 
 power & energy magazine
69
1540-7977/08/$25.00©2008 IEEE
E
 © EYEWIRE
ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT CRISES ARE FAST BECOMING THE BIGGESTproblems around the world so,as aconsequence,new renewable and clean energy powersources must be considered. One of the prevalent alternative sources of electric power is the fuelcell,discovered by Sir William Grove in 1839. One expects that fuel cell power generation sys-tems will be used in a growing number of areas:in portable applications,in transportation appli-cations,and in stationary power applications,for which fuel cell systems can provide bothpower and heat with cogeneration efficiencies as high as 80%. Numerous recent works havealready highlighted the possibility of using the fuel cell in distributed power generation systems.The fuel cell utilizes the chemical energy of hydrogen (H
2
) and oxygen (O
2
) to generateelectricity without pollution,as shown in Figure 1. The byproducts are simply pure water andheat. There are several types of fuel cells,which are characterized by the employed electrolyte.One of the most promising is the small,lightweight,and relatively easy to build polymer elec-trolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC),first used by NASA in the 1960s as part of the Geminispace program.A single cell voltage of the fuel cell is given by Gibb’s free energy
Δ
G
and is equal to 1.23 V.This theoretical value is never reached even at no-load. For the rated current,the voltage of anelementary cell is about 0.6–0.7 V. Then a fuel cell is always an assembly of elementary cellsthat constitute a stack as shown in Figure 2.
 Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/MPE.2007.911814
 
Fuel Cell System
A fuel cell stack requires fuel,oxidant,and coolant in order to operate. The com-position,pressure,and flow rate of each of these streams must be regulated. In addi-tion,the gases must be humidified and thecoolant temperature must be controlled.To achieve this,the fuel cell stack must besurrounded by a fuel system,fuel deliverysystem,air system,stack cooling system,and humidification system.Once operating,the output power gen-erated by the fuel cells must be condi-tioned and absorbed by a load. Suitablealarms must shut down the process if unsafe operating conditions occur and acell voltage monitoring system must mon-itor fuel cell stack performance. Thesefunctions are performed by electrical con-trol systems. As an example,Figure 3shows a simplified dia-gram of the PEM fuel cell system.When a fuel cell operates,its fuel (hydrogen and oxygen)flows are controlled by a “fuel cell controller,which receivescurrent demand. This current demand is the fuel cell current ref-erence
i
FCREF 
(see Figure 3) coming from the energy manage-ment controller. The fuel flows must be adjusted to match thereactant delivery rate to the usage rate by the fuel cell controller.
Fuel Cell Dynamic Limitation
It is widely accepted that one of the main weak points of thefuel cell is its time constants dominated by temperature andfuel delivery system (pumps,valves,and in some cases,ahydrogen reformer). As a result,fast load demand will causea high voltage drop in a shorttime,recognized as “fuelstarvation phenomena.”For clarity,Figure 4presents the 0.5-kW PEMfuel cell voltage response toa current profile. The testsoperate in two differentways:current step and cur-rent slope. It shows the dropof voltage curve in Figure4(a),compared with Figure4(b),which implies thatfuel supply and deliveredelectrical current do notcoincide. Fuel flows (partic-ularly the delay of air flow)have difficulties followingthe current step. This condi-tion of operation is evident-ly hazardous for the fuelcell stack.
70
IEEE 
 power & energy magazine
january/february 2008
 figure 1.
Fuel cell principle discovered by Sir William Grove.
 figure 2.
PEMFC stack (500 W, 40 A) composed of 23cells of 100 cm
2
developed by ZSW Company (Germany).
 figure 3.
Simplified diagram of the PEM fuel cell system.
v
FC
and
FC
are the fuel cellvoltage and current.
O
2
H
2
ElectronFlowDilute AcidElectrolytePt ElectrodesThe Electrolysis of WaterO
2
H
2
ElectronFlowDilute AcidElectrolytePt ElectrodesThe Electrolysis of WaterIs Reversible.AHydrogenfrom Bottle
+
Flux ControllerElectricHeaterHeat ExchangerExcessPressureControllerAir fromCompressorHumidifierFuel CellController
FCREF 
 (
)
FC 
 
(
)PEMFC Stack500 W, 23 CellsCondenserExcess
FC 
 (
)
 
 january/february 2008
IEEE 
 power & energy magazine
Reliability and lifetime are the most essential considera-tions in such power sources. The hydrogen and oxygen star-vations cause severe and permanent damage to theelectro-catalyst of the fuel cell. The fuel starvation must beabsolutely avoided even if the operation under fuel starvationis momentary just within one second.It is therefore recommended,when utilizing a fuel cell,toemploy a power loop or a current loop in order to preventoverloads and fault conditions and to associate it with,at least,a fast auxiliary power source to improve the dynamic per-formances of the whole system. Moreover,one can takeadvantage of this fast auxiliary power source to achieve anactual hybrid source in order to disassociate mean power siz-ing from peak transient power sizing; the aim being a reduc-tion in volume and weight,and in the case of fuel cells used asmain energy source,the possibility of regenerative braking.
Supercapacitors
Recent progress in supercapacitor technology has principallybeen applied in computer memory backup systems,but with the
71
 figure 4.
Fuel cell dynamic characteristics to (a) current step and (b) current slope: 4 A/s
 figure 5.
Principle of operation of a supercapacitor.
Ch1: FC VoltageCh2: FC CurrentCh3: HydrogenFlowCh4: Air FlowTime: 4 s/DivTime: 1 s/DivCh4: Air FlowCh3: Hydrogen FlowCh1: FC Voltage [4 V/div][20 Liter/Min/Div][2 Liter/Min/Div]Ch2: FC Current [10 A/div]5 A5 A4 A/s40 A40 AFuel Starvation PhenomenaTek Stopped Single Seq 1 AcqsTek Stopped1 Acqs28 Oct 05 16:56:0628 Oct 05 17:01:48234(a)(b)12341Activated Carbon Electrode
Ions
+
IonsOrganicElectrolytePower SupplyLoad
=
ε
 
the Permittivity of Free Space
ε
the Relative Permittivity of the Dielectric
A
the Plate Surface Area
the Plate Separation
ε
ε
A
DischargingCharging

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