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Linear Algebra

Linear Algebra

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01/18/2014

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LINEAR ALGEBRA
Paul Dawkins
 
Linear Algebra© 2007 Paul Dawkins i http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu/terms.aspx
Table of Contents
 
Preface ............................................................................................................................................ ii
 
Outline ........................................................................................................................................... iii
 
Systems of Equations and Matrices ............................................................................................. 1
 
Introduction ................................................................................................................................................ 1
 
Systems of Equations ................................................................................................................................. 3
 
Solving Systems of Equations .................................................................................................................. 15
 
Matrices .................................................................................................................................................... 27
 
Matrix Arithmetic & Operations .............................................................................................................. 33
 
Properties of Matrix Arithmetic and the Transpose ................................................................................. 45
 
Inverse Matrices and Elementary Matrices .............................................................................................. 50
 
Finding Inverse Matrices .......................................................................................................................... 59
 
Special Matrices ....................................................................................................................................... 68
 
LU-Decomposition ................................................................................................................................... 75
 
Systems Revisited .................................................................................................................................... 81
 
Determinants ................................................................................................................................ 90
 
Introduction .............................................................................................................................................. 90
 
The Determinant Function ....................................................................................................................... 91
 
Properties of Determinants ......................................................................................................................100
 
The Method of Cofactors ........................................................................................................................107
 
Using Row Reduction To Compute Determinants ..................................................................................115
 
Cramer’s Rule .........................................................................................................................................122
 
Euclidean
 n
-Space ..................................................................................................................... 125
 
Introduction .............................................................................................................................................125
 
Vectors ....................................................................................................................................................126
 
Dot Product & Cross Product ..................................................................................................................140
 
Euclidean n-Space ...................................................................................................................................154
 
Linear Transformations ...........................................................................................................................163
 
Examples of Linear Transformations ......................................................................................................173
 
Vector Spaces ............................................................................................................................. 181
 
Introduction .............................................................................................................................................181
 
Vector Spaces ..........................................................................................................................................183
 
Subspaces ................................................................................................................................................193
 
Span.........................................................................................................................................................203
 
Linear Independence ...............................................................................................................................212
 
Basis and Dimension ...............................................................................................................................223
 
Change of Basis ......................................................................................................................................239
 
Fundamental Subspaces ..........................................................................................................................252
 
Inner Product Spaces ...............................................................................................................................263
 
Orthonormal Basis ..................................................................................................................................271
 
Least Squares ..........................................................................................................................................283
 
QR-Decomposition .................................................................................................................................291
 
Orthogonal Matrices ...............................................................................................................................299
 
Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors .................................................................................................. 305
 
Introduction .............................................................................................................................................305
 
Review of Determinants ..........................................................................................................................306
 
Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors .................................................................................................................315
 
Diagonalization .......................................................................................................................................331
 
 
Linear Algebra© 2007 Paul Dawkins ii http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu/terms.aspx
Preface
 
Here are my online notes for my Linear Algebra course that I teach here at Lamar University.Despite the fact that these are my “class notes” they should be accessible to anyone wanting tolearn Linear Algebra or needing a refresher.These notes do assume that the reader has a good working knowledge of basic Algebra. This setof notes is fairly self contained but there is enough Algebra type problems (arithmetic andoccasionally solving equations) that can show up that not having a good background in Algebracan cause the occasional problem.Here are a couple of warnings to my students who may be here to get a copy of what happened ona day that you missed.1.
 
Because I wanted to make this a fairly complete set of notes for anyone wanting to learnLinear Algebra I have included some material that I do not usually have time to cover inclass and because this changes from semester to semester it is not noted here. You willneed to find one of your fellow class mates to see if there is something in these notes thatwasn’t covered in class.2.
 
In general I try to work problems in class that are different from my notes. However,with a Linear Algebra course while I can make up the problems off the top of my headthere is no guarantee that they will work out nicely or the way I want them to. So,because of that my class work will tend to follow these notes fairly close as far as workedproblems go. With that being said I will, on occasion, work problems off the top of myhead when I can to provide more examples than just those in my notes. Also, I oftendon’t have time in class to work all of the problems in the notes and so you will find thatsome sections contain problems that weren’t worked in class due to time restrictions.3.
 
Sometimes questions in class will lead down paths that are not covered here. I try toanticipate as many of the questions as possible in writing these notes up, but the reality isthat I can’t anticipate all the questions. Sometimes a very good question gets asked inclass that leads to insights that I’ve not included here. You should always talk tosomeone who was in class on the day you missed and compare these notes to their notesand see what the differences are.4.
 
This is somewhat related to the previous three items, but is important enough to merit itsown item. THESE NOTES ARE NOT A SUBSTITUTE FOR ATTENDING CLASS!!Using these notes as a substitute for class is liable to get you in trouble. As already notednot everything in these notes is covered in class and often material or insights not in thesenotes is covered in class.

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