Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Standard view
Full view
of .
0 of .
Results for:
P. 1
Linear Algebra

# Linear Algebra

Ratings:

4.0

(1)
|Views: 1,839 |Likes:

Published by: allanviento on Aug 31, 2008

### Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
See more
See less

01/18/2014

pdf

text

original

LINEAR ALGEBRA
Paul Dawkins

Linear Algebra© 2007 Paul Dawkins i http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu/terms.aspx

Preface ............................................................................................................................................ ii

Outline ........................................................................................................................................... iii

Systems of Equations and Matrices ............................................................................................. 1

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................ 1

Systems of Equations ................................................................................................................................. 3

Solving Systems of Equations .................................................................................................................. 15

Matrices .................................................................................................................................................... 27

Matrix Arithmetic & Operations .............................................................................................................. 33

Properties of Matrix Arithmetic and the Transpose ................................................................................. 45

Inverse Matrices and Elementary Matrices .............................................................................................. 50

Finding Inverse Matrices .......................................................................................................................... 59

Special Matrices ....................................................................................................................................... 68

LU-Decomposition ................................................................................................................................... 75

Systems Revisited .................................................................................................................................... 81

Determinants ................................................................................................................................ 90

Introduction .............................................................................................................................................. 90

The Determinant Function ....................................................................................................................... 91

Properties of Determinants ......................................................................................................................100

The Method of Cofactors ........................................................................................................................107

Using Row Reduction To Compute Determinants ..................................................................................115

Cramer’s Rule .........................................................................................................................................122

Euclidean
n
-Space ..................................................................................................................... 125

Introduction .............................................................................................................................................125

Vectors ....................................................................................................................................................126

Dot Product & Cross Product ..................................................................................................................140

Euclidean n-Space ...................................................................................................................................154

Linear Transformations ...........................................................................................................................163

Examples of Linear Transformations ......................................................................................................173

Vector Spaces ............................................................................................................................. 181

Introduction .............................................................................................................................................181

Vector Spaces ..........................................................................................................................................183

Subspaces ................................................................................................................................................193

Span.........................................................................................................................................................203

Linear Independence ...............................................................................................................................212

Basis and Dimension ...............................................................................................................................223

Change of Basis ......................................................................................................................................239

Fundamental Subspaces ..........................................................................................................................252

Inner Product Spaces ...............................................................................................................................263

Orthonormal Basis ..................................................................................................................................271

Least Squares ..........................................................................................................................................283

QR-Decomposition .................................................................................................................................291

Orthogonal Matrices ...............................................................................................................................299

Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors .................................................................................................. 305

Introduction .............................................................................................................................................305

Review of Determinants ..........................................................................................................................306

Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors .................................................................................................................315

Diagonalization .......................................................................................................................................331

Linear Algebra© 2007 Paul Dawkins ii http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu/terms.aspx
Preface

Here are my online notes for my Linear Algebra course that I teach here at Lamar University.Despite the fact that these are my “class notes” they should be accessible to anyone wanting tolearn Linear Algebra or needing a refresher.These notes do assume that the reader has a good working knowledge of basic Algebra. This setof notes is fairly self contained but there is enough Algebra type problems (arithmetic andoccasionally solving equations) that can show up that not having a good background in Algebracan cause the occasional problem.Here are a couple of warnings to my students who may be here to get a copy of what happened ona day that you missed.1.

Because I wanted to make this a fairly complete set of notes for anyone wanting to learnLinear Algebra I have included some material that I do not usually have time to cover inclass and because this changes from semester to semester it is not noted here. You willneed to find one of your fellow class mates to see if there is something in these notes thatwasn’t covered in class.2.

In general I try to work problems in class that are different from my notes. However,with a Linear Algebra course while I can make up the problems off the top of my headthere is no guarantee that they will work out nicely or the way I want them to. So,because of that my class work will tend to follow these notes fairly close as far as workedproblems go. With that being said I will, on occasion, work problems off the top of myhead when I can to provide more examples than just those in my notes. Also, I oftendon’t have time in class to work all of the problems in the notes and so you will find thatsome sections contain problems that weren’t worked in class due to time restrictions.3.

Sometimes questions in class will lead down paths that are not covered here. I try toanticipate as many of the questions as possible in writing these notes up, but the reality isthat I can’t anticipate all the questions. Sometimes a very good question gets asked inclass that leads to insights that I’ve not included here. You should always talk tosomeone who was in class on the day you missed and compare these notes to their notesand see what the differences are.4.

This is somewhat related to the previous three items, but is important enough to merit itsown item. THESE NOTES ARE NOT A SUBSTITUTE FOR ATTENDING CLASS!!Using these notes as a substitute for class is liable to get you in trouble. As already notednot everything in these notes is covered in class and often material or insights not in thesenotes is covered in class.

## Activity (207)

You've already reviewed this. Edit your review.
A52372 liked this