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CG Unit - 1 Notes

CG Unit - 1 Notes

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Published by vjagarwal
Computer Graphics Unit - 1 Notes for BCA V Semester Jiwaji University. Ref: Pearsons, Hearn Baker
Computer Graphics Unit - 1 Notes for BCA V Semester Jiwaji University. Ref: Pearsons, Hearn Baker

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Published by: vjagarwal on Apr 22, 2011
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08/06/2013

 
Unit
± 1
i
 
VIDEO DISPLAY DEVICES:
The primary output device in a graphics system is a video monitor. The operation of mostvideo monitors is based on the standard
Cathode-ray tube (tube)
design. There are severalnew technologies that have been introduced and may eventually predominate in future. Someof the Video Display Devices that are being used at present are:1.
 
C
athode-Ray Tubes (Refresh
C
athode-Ray Tubes)2.
 
Raster-Scan Displays3.
 
Random-Scan Displays4.
 
Direct-View Storage Tubes5.
 
Flat-Panel Displays
Cathode-Ray Tubes (Refresh Cathode-Ray Tubes):
 Fig. A.
C
RT (page no. 57)A beam of electrons (cathode rays) emitted by an electron gun, passes through focusing anddeflection systems. These systems then direct the beam towards specified positions on the phosphor-coated screen. The phosphor then emits a small spot of light at each positioncontacted by the electron beam. Since the light emitted by the phosphor fades very rapidly(quickly), so to keep the phosphor glowing it is needed to redraw the picture repeatedly byquickly directing the electron beam back over the same points. This type of display is called arefresh
C
RT.The primary components of an electron gun in a
C
RT are the heated metal cathode and acontrol grid.
y
 
The cathode surface is heated up by directing a current through a coil of wire, calledthe heating filament, inside the cathode structure.
y
 
The negatively charged electrons are then accelerated toward the phosphor coating bya high positive voltage generated with the positively charged metal coating (placednear the phosphor screen), or with an accelerating anode.
y
 
The control grid (a metal cylinder over the cathode) is used to control the intensity of the electron beam by setting voltage levels on it (control grid).
y
 
A high negative voltage will shut off the beam by repelling electrons and stoppingthem from passing through the small hole at the end of the control grid, while asmaller negative voltage simply decreases the number of electrons passing through it.
 
y
 
Since the amount of the light emitted by the phosphor coating depends on the number of electrons striking the screen, the brightness of the display can be controlled byvarying the voltage on the control grid.The focusing system in a
C
RT is needed to force the electron beam to converge into asmall spot as it strikes the phosphor.
y
 
Focusing is accomplished with either electric or magnetic fields.
y
 
W
ith electrostatic focusing, the electron beam passes through a positively chargedmetal cylinder that forms an electrostatic lens.
y
 
E
lectrostatic lens focuses the electron beam at the center of the screen.
y
 
M
agnetic field set up by a coil mounted around the outside of the
C
RT envelopecan also be used for accomplishing focusing effects.
y
 
M
agnetic lens focusing produces the smallest spot size on the screen and is usedin special purpose devices.Spots of light are produced on the screen by the transfer of the
C
RT beam energy to the phosphor.
y
 
W
hen the electrons in the beam collide with the phosphor coating, they are stoppedand their kinetic energy is absorbed by the phosphor.
y
 
Part of the beam energy is converted by friction into heat energy, and the remainder causes electrons in the phosphor to move up to higher quantum-energy levels.
y
 
After a short time, the ³excited´ phosphor electrons begin dropping back to their stable ground state, giving up their extra energy as small quantum of light energy.
y
 
The screen is the combined effect of all the electron light emissions: a glowing spotthat quickly fades after all the excited phosphor electrons have returned to their ground energy level.
Persistence:
 
Persistence is defined as the time it takes the emitted light from the screen to decay to one-tenth of its original intensity.
y
 
Persistence is one of the major differences between kinds of phosphorus available for use in a
C
RT.
y
 
Persistence in phosphorus: how long they continue to emit light (that is, have excitedelectrons returning to the ground state) after the
C
RT beam is removed.
y
 
L
ower-persistence requires higher refresh rates to maintain a picture on the screenwithout flicker (drop). A phosphor with low persistence is useful for animation
y
 
A high-persistence phosphor is useful for displaying highly complex, static pictures.
y
 
Although some phosphors have persistence greater than 1 second, graphics monitorsare usually constructed with persistence in the range from 10 to 60 microseconds.
Resolution:
The maximum number of points that can be displayed without overlap on a
C
RT is referredto as the resolution. Resolution is the number of points per centimeter that can be plottedhorizontally and vertically.
y
 
Two adjacent spots will appear distinct as long as their separation is greater than thediameter at which each spot has an intensity of about 60 percent of that at the center of the spot.
y
 
Spot size also depends on intensity. As more electrons are accelerated toward the phosphor per second, the
C
RT beam diameter and the illuminated spot increase.
y
 
Typical resolution on high-quality systems is 1280 by 1024, with higher resolutionsavailable on many systems. High resolution systems are often referred to as high-definition systems.
Raster-Scan Displays
 
 
Two illuminated phosphor spots are distinguishable when their separation is greaterthan the diameter at which a spot intensity has fallen to 60 percent of maximum.

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