THE POLITICAL SCIENCE REVIEWER
yearned for the classroom and returned to the Eden faculty where
he taught until 1931 when he took a Yale professorship to teach
Christian ethics, a position he held until his death
H. Richard Niebuhr was a dedicated and active churchman
throughout his life. He was an early advocate of church union and
ecumenical cooperation. His first major book,
The Social Sources of
in a highly critical tone, pointed to
how economic, racial, regional, ethnic, nationalistic, and politicalforces had molded churches in their own image. In a 1935 book,
Church Against the World
Pauck) he pointed to the "captivity" of the churches by the culture
and pleaded for the church's liberation and independence from
capitalism, nationalism, and humanism. In his masterful study of
The Kingdom of God in America,°
he seeks to provide a cor
of his early writings, arguing
effect that socio
historical factors cannot account for all religious belief and events.
That is, to use social scientific language, religion (specifically in thiscase, the conception of the Kingdom of God) can be an independentvariable.
In 1941 he published one of his finest theological works,
Meaning of Revelation,°
which Paul Tillich once referred to as
existential thinking in present American theology."7A 1951 book,
Christ and Culture°
explores the normative patterns
Christians have used to relate to the "world" or culure. Four years
later he edited (with Waldo Beach)
Basic Christian Ethics.°
In 1954-55, with the assistance of James Gustafson and Daniel
Day Williams, he directed a study of theological education in theUnited States and Canada for the American Association of Theo-
The Purpose of the Church and Its Ministry
The Social Sources
(New York: Henry Holt and Com-
The Church Against the World
New York: Willell, Clark and
Company, 1935), hereafter
The Kingdom of God in America
(New York: Harper Torch Books, 1959),
New York: The Macmillan Company, 1941),
Paul Tillich, "Existential Thinking in American Theology,"
(Summer 1941), p. 4551.
s Christ and Culture
(New York: Harper, 1951) hereafter CC.
Basic Christian Ethics
New York: Ronald Press, 1955).